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Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.
1. Places to stay in
2. Arts and culture
3. New country image
4. Going out
5. Different landscapes
6. Transport system
7. National languages
8. Eating out
A. Belgium has always had a lot more than the faceless administrative buildings that you can see in the outskirts of its capital, Brussels. A number of beautiful historic cities and Brussels itself offer impressive architecture, lively nightlife, first-rate restaurants and numerous other attractions for visitors. Today, the old-fashioned idea of ‘boring Belgium’ has been well and truly forgotten, as more and more people discover its very individual charms for themselves.
B. Nature in Belgium is varied. The rivers and hills of the Ardennes in the southeast contrast sharply with the rolling plains which make up much of the northern and western countryside. The most notable features are the great forest near the frontier with Germany and Luxembourg and the wide, sandy beaches of the northern coast.
C. It is easy both to enter and to travel around pocket- sized Belgium which is divided into the Dutchspeaking north and the French-speaking south. Officially the Belgians speak Dutch, French and German. Dutch is slightly more widely spoken than French, and German is spoken the least. The Belgians, living in the north, will often prefer to answer visitors in English rather than French, even if the visitor’s French is good.
D. Belgium has a wide range of hotels from 5-star luxury to small family pensions and inns. In some regions of the country, farm holidays are available. There visitors can (for a small cost) participate in the daily work of the farm. There are plenty of opportunities to rent furnished villas, flats, rooms, or bungalows for a holiday period. These holiday houses and flats are comfortable and well-equipped.
E. The Belgian style of cooking is similar to French, based on meat and seafood. Each region in Belgium has its own special dish. Butter, cream, beer and wine are generously used in cooking. The Belgians are keen on their food, and the country is very well supplied with excellent restaurants to suit all budgets. The perfect evening out here involves a delicious meal, and the restaurants and cafes are busy at all times of the week.
F. As well as being one of the best cities in the world for eating out (both for its high quality and range), Brussels has a very active and varied nightlife. It has 10 theatres which produce plays in both Dutch and French. There are also dozens of cinemas, numerous discos and many night-time cafes in Brussels. Elsewhere, the nightlife choices depend on the size of the town, but there is no shortage of fun to be had in any of the major cities.
G. There is a good system of underground trains, trams and buses in all the major towns and cities. In addition, Belgium’s waterways offer a pleasant way to enjoy the country. Visitors can take a one-hour cruise around the canals of Bruges (sometimes described as the Venice of the North) or an extended cruise along the rivers and canals linking the major cities of Belgium and the Netherlands.
Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.
1. Places to stay in
2. Public transport
3. Cultural differences
5. Camping holidays
6. Contacts with neighbours
7. Different landscapes
8. Eating out
A. Sweden is a land of contrast, from the Danish influence of the southwest to the Laplanders wandering freely with their reindeer in the wild Arctic north. And while Sweden in cities is stylish and modern, the countryside offers many simpler pleasures for those who look for peace and calm. The land and its people have an air of reserved calm, and still the world’s best-selling pop group Abba, which used to attract crowds of hysterical fans, come from Sweden.
B. Historically, Sweden has an interesting story. Its dealings with the outside world began, in fact, during Viking times, when in addition to the well- known surprise attacks of the nearby lands, there was much trading around the Baltic, mostly in furs and weapons. Swedish connections with the other Scandinavian countries, Norway and Denmark, have been strong since the Middle Ages. The monarchies of all three are still closely linked.
C. Sweden’s scenery has a gentler charm than that of neighbouring Norway’s rocky coast. Much of Sweden is forested, and there are thousands lakes, notably large pools near the capital, Stockholm. The lakeside resort in the centre of Sweden is popular with Scandinavians, but most visitors prefer first the Baltic islands. The largest island, Gotland, with its ruined medieval churches, is a particular attraction.
D. Sweden boasts a good range of hotels, covering the full spectrum of prices and standards. Many of them offer discounts in summer and at weekends during the winter. In addition, working farms throughout Sweden offer accommodation, either in the main farmhouse or in a cottage nearby. Forest cabins and chalets are also available throughout the country, generally set in beautiful surroundings, near lakes, in quiet forest glades or on an island in some remote place.
E. Living in a tent or caravan with your family or friends at weekends and on holiday is extremely popular in Sweden and there is a fantastic variety of special places. Most are located on a lakeside or by the sea with free bathing facilities close at hand. There are over 600 campsites in the country. It is often possible to rent boats or bicycles, play mini-golf or tennis, ride a horse or relax in a sauna. It is also possible to camp in areas away from other houses.
F. Swedes like plain meals, simply prepared from the freshest ingredients. As a country with a sea coast and many freshwater lakes, fish dishes are found on all hotel or restaurant menus. Top-class restaurants in Sweden are usually fairly expensive, but even the smallest towns have reasonably priced self-service restaurants and grill bars. Many restaurants all over Sweden offer a special dish of the day at a reduced price that includes main course, salad, soft drink and coffee.
G. Stockholm has a variety of pubs, cafes, clubs, restaurants, cinemas and theatres but in the country evenings tend to be very calm and peaceful. From August to June the Royal Ballet performs in Stockholm. Music and theatre productions take place in many cities during the summer in the open air. Outside Stockholm in the 18th-century palace there are performances of 18th-century opera very popular with tourists.
Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.
2. Way of life
3. Public transport
5. Places to stay in
6. Favourite food
7. Hot spots for kids
A. Denmark, a small kingdom in northern Europe, has a lot of interesting places for tourists with children. For example, Legoland, a theme park, has become the largest tourist attraction in Denmark outside its capital Copenhagen. And Copenhagen itself is world famous for its Tivoli Gardens amusement park, which opened in 1843 in the heart of the city. The park offers ballet and circus performances, restaurants, concerts, and fireworks displays.
B. Denmark is the smallest Scandinavian country, consisting of the Jutland peninsula, north of Germany, and over 400 islands of various sizes, some inhabited and linked to the mainland by ferry or bridge. Throughout the country, low hills provide a constant change of attractive views; there are also cool and shady forests of beech trees, large areas of open land covered with rough grass, a beautiful lake district, sand dunes and white cliffs on the coast.
C. More than four-fifths of all Danes live in towns. The main cities represent a combination of medieval buildings, such as castles and cathedrals, and modern office buildings and homes. Denmark’s high standard of living and wide-ranging social services guarantee that the cities have no poor districts. Most people in the cities live in flats. But in the suburbs many also live in single-family houses.
D. Denmark’s fine beaches attract many visitors, and there are hotels and pensions in all major seaside resorts. Besides, excellent inns are to be found all over the country. Some are small and only serve local travellers, but others are adapted to the tourist and have established reputations for both international dishes and local specialities. There are also private rooms to let, usually for one night, and chalets all over Denmark.
E. There is a wide selection of places to go out in the evening, particularly in Copenhagen. Jazz and dance clubs in the capital city are top quality and world-famous performers appear regularly. There are numerous cafes, beer gardens and speciality beer bars. Entertainment available includes opera at the recently opened opera house in Copenhagen, ballet and theatre at a number of places in the larger cities, and live music of all kinds.
F. Most Danes eat four meals a day — breakfast, lunch, dinner, and a late-evening supper. Breakfast generally consists of cereal, cheese, or eggs. Dinner, which includes fish or meat, is usually the only hot meal. A traditional Danish dinner consists of roast duckling stuffed with apples, served with red cabbage and boiled potatoes. The other Danish meals consist mostly of sandwiches.
G. Almost all adult Danes can read and write. Danish law requires children to attend nine years of school. Primary school consists of the first seven grades, and secondary school lasts from three to five years. A five-year secondary school student can enter a university. Denmark has three universities. The University of Copenhagen is the oldest and largest. It was founded in 1479 and has about 24,000 students.
1. Education: the Way to the Top
2. From Agony to Love
3. Teaching to Learn
4. Learning That Never Stops
5. Things Worth Learning
6. The Right Word Can Bring Changes
7. What My Father Taught Me
8. The Power of Numbers
A. Education has the power to transform a person’s life. I am the living example of this. When I was on the streets, I thought I was not good at anything but I wrote a poem, and it got published. I went back to school to learn. I have learned the benefit of research and reading, of debate and listening. One day soon a group of fresh-faced college students will call me professor.
B. Language has the capacity to change the world and the way we live in it. People are often afraid to call things by their direct names, use taboos not to notice dangerous tendencies. Freedom begins with naming things. This has to happen in spite of political climates, careers being won or lost, and the fear of being criticized. After Helen Caldicott used the word ‘nuclear arms race’ an anti-nuclear movement appeared.
C. I never wanted to be a teacher. Yet years later, I find myself teaching high school English. I consider my job to be one of the most important aspects of my life, still I do not teach for the love of teaching. I am a teacher because I love to learn, and I have come to realize that the best way to learn is to teach.
D. One day my sister and I got one and the same homework. My sister finished the task in 2 minutes and went off to play. But I could not do it, so I went into my sister’s room and quickly copied her work. But there was one small problem: my father caught me. He didn’t punish me, but explained that cheating makes people feel helpless. And then I was left feeling guilty for cheating.
E. Lifelong learning does not mean spending all my time reading. It is equally important to get the habit of asking such questions as ‘what don’t I know about this topic, or subject?’, ‘what can I learn from this moment or person?’, and ‘what more do I need to learn?’ regardless of where I am, who I am talking to, or what I am doing.
F. Math has always been something that I am good at. Mathematics attracts me because of its stability. It has logic; it is dependable and never changes. There might be some additions to the area of mathematics, but once mathematics is created, it is set in stone. We would not be able to check emails or play videogames without the computer solving complex algorithms.
G. When my high school English teacher asked us to read Shakespeare, I thought it was boring and too difficult. I agonized over the syntax — I had never read anything like this. But now I am a Shakespeare professor, arid enjoy teaching Hamlet every semester. Each time I re-read the play, I find and learn something new for myself.
1. Not Just Fun
2. Running For Heart and Mind
3. United By The Game
4. I Want To Be A Coach
5. Team Work in Sport and Life
6. Next Year We Win
7. Learning From Father
8. School between Practices
A. I believe playing sports is more than an activity to fill your day, it can teach important life lessons. When I was a child, my dad spent a lot of time teaching me how to play different sports. He told me that if I can succeed in sports, I can succeed at anything in life. He used to say, ‘It’s not about how good you become. It’s about working hard to get where you want to be.’
B. I like bicycles. Group rides help me to get new skills and make new friends. I try to apply the tactics of group riding to team work in the real world. In the perfect group ride, each rider takes a turn leading the pack, while the others enjoy the benefits of drafting. I think this way of working is a great method for approaching a group task anywhere.
C. I believe in the power of running. Running should not be a battle for your body but rather a rest for your mind. I felt this last fall, when I was running in the park. Suddenly I felt as if I could have run forever, as if I could use running as a source of therapy for my body. Running allows the body to release different types of stress and even change our understanding of life.
D. My father coached basketball every day of his life, and I was right there with him in the gym watching him work his magic. Basketball appears entertaining and exciting. But the path to success is not simple. My father always told me, ‘Nothing is free.’ I took this advice and ran with it. I truly believe that only practice and determination lead to success.
E. Baseball is so much more than a sport. One of the powers of baseball is that it brings people together. It unites fans of all ages, genders, and nationalities. No matter who you are, you can be a baseball fan. My mom and I have one unspoken rule: no matter what has been going on before, no fighting at the game.
F. I believe that you must always be loyal to the sport teams you support. The teams I follow in the United States generally lose many more than they win. The start of each season brings dreams of victory in baseball, basketball or football, dreams that fade away soon. But then there is always next year. It will be our year for sure.
G. I was determined to join the swim team. I knew I would get my strengths and learn my weaknesses there. Waking up early for 6:30 a.m. practices is what swim team is all about, as it helps us get into state. On a long school day you think about the practice in the pool after school. You want to hear the crowd cheering you, telling you that you have to do more than your best.
1. Travel memories
2. Animal lover magazine
3. Travel to stars
4. Star dreams
5. Popular hobby
6. Family magazine
7. People and nature
8. Animals in danger
A. Most people who spend a holiday travelling take a camera with them and photograph anything that interests them — sights of a city, views of mountains, lakes, waterfalls, men and women, children, ruins of ancient buildings, and even birds and animals. Later looking through their albums they will remember the happy time they have had, the islands, countries and cities they have seen.
B. Of course, different people dream of different things. Someone wishes a calm and quiet life; others imagine their life as a never-ending adventure. The majority dream of something concrete: a villa in some warm place, an account in a Swiss bank, a splendid car... It’s interesting to know what the dreams of people who already have all this are. Celebrities, as we know, never hide their unusual hobbies, and often shock us with their extravagant behaviour.
C. It is Junior Baseball Magazine’s mission to provide information that enhances the youth baseball experience for the entire family. The player improves his skills and is more successful. The family enjoys the activity more and shares this precious time in their life. Junior Baseball emphasizes good sportsmanship, safety, physical fitness and wholesome family values.
D. The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison like industrial, nuclear and chemical waste. The Mediterranean Sea is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following it. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas. Every ten minutes one species of animal, plant or insect dies out forever.
E. Lots of people all over the world enjoy collecting stamps. Stamps are like little pictures. Very often they show the flowers or the trees which grow in this or that country, or they can show different kinds of transport of the country. Stamps may also have portraits of famous people on them. Some stamps show art work from the history of the country.
F. “Friend” is the title of my favourite magazine. It consists of 70 pages, with lots of colourful and bright pictures and provides interesting and useful information for people who love animals. The magazine includes numerous articles devoted to various topics connected with domestic animals, ways to take care of them, pet food, animal health and many other topics crucial for any animal lover.
G. People are beginning to realize that environmental problems are not just somebody else’s. Many people join and support various international organizations and green parties. Human life is the most important, and polluted air, poisoned water, wastelands, noise, smoke, gas, exhaust all influence not only nature but people themselves. Everything should be done to improve ecological conditions on our planet.
1. Perfect for a quiet holiday
2. Land of nature wonders
3. Bad for animals
4. A visit to the zoo
5. Perfect for an active holiday
6. Difficult start
7. New perspectives
8. New rules to follow
A. The mountains of Scotland (we call them the Highlands) are a wild and beautiful part of Europe. A golden eagle flies over the mountains. A deer walks through the silence of the forest. Salmon and trout swim in the clean, pure water of the rivers. Some say that not only fish swim in the deep water of Loch Ness. Speak to the people living by the Loch. Each person has a story of the monster, and some have photographs.
B. Tresco is a beautiful island with no cars, crowds or noise — just flowers, birds, long sandy beaches and the Tresco Abbey Garden. John and Wendy Pyatt welcome you to the Island Hotel, famous for delicious food, comfort and brilliant service. You will appreciate superb accommodation, free saunas and the indoor swimming pool.
C. The Camel and Wildlife Safari is a unique mixture of the traditional and modern. Kenya’s countryside suits the Safari purposes exceptionally well. Tourists will have a chance to explore the bush country near Samburu, to travel on a camel back or to sleep out under the stars. Modern safari vehicles are always available for those who prefer comfort.
D. Arrival can be the hardest part of a trip. It is late, you are road-weary, and everything is new and strange. You need an affordable place to sleep, something to eat and drink, and probably a way to get around. But in general, it’s a wonderful trip, full of wonderful and unusual places. Whether it is the first stop on a trip or the fifth city visited, every traveller feels a little overwhelmed stepping onto a new street in a new city.
E. No zoo has enough money to provide basic habitats or environments for all the species they keep. Most animals are put in a totally artificial environment, isolated from everything they would meet in their natural habitat. Many will agree that this isolation is harmful to the most of zoo inhabitants, it can even amount to cruelty.
F. A new London Zoo Project is a ten year project to secure the future for the Zoo and for many endangered animals. The plan has been devised by both animal and business experts to provide world-leading accommodation for all our animals, to more fully engage and inform people about conservation issues, to redesign certain aspects of Zoo layout.
G. Leave-no-trace camping is an increasingly popular approach to travel in wilderness areas. As the term suggests, the goal is for the camper to leave as little impact as possible on the place he is visiting. One of its mottos is “Take nothing but pictures. Leave nothing but footprints.” Its simplest and most fundamental rule is: pack it in, pack it out, but it goes beyond that.
1. The House of Commons
2. Parliamentary Procedure
3. The House of Lords
5. The System of Government
6. Parliamentary Committees
8. The Crown
A. Her Majesty’s Government, in spite of its name, derives its authority and power from its party representation in Parliament. Parliament is housed in the Palace of Westminster, once a home of the monarchy. Like the monarchy, Parliament is an ancient institution, dating from the middle of the thirteenth century. Parliament is the seat of British democracy, but it is perhaps valuable to remember that while the House of Lords was created in order to provide a council of the nobility for the king, the Commons were summoned originally in order to provide the king with money.
B. The reigning monarch is not only head of state but symbol of the unity of the nation. The monarchy is Britain’s oldest secular institution, its continuity for over a thousand years broken only once by a republic that lasted a mere eleven years (1649-60). The monarchy is hereditary, the succession passing automatically to the oldest male child, or in the absence of males to the oldest female offspring of the monarch. In law the monarch is head of the executive and of the judiciary, head of the Church of England, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
C. The dynamic power of Parliament lies in its lower chamber. Of its 650 members, 523 represent constituencies in England, 38 in Wales, 72 in Scotland and 17 in Northern Ireland. There are only seats in the Commons debating chamber for 370 members, but except on matters of great interest, it is unusual for all members to be present at any one time. Many MPs find themselves in other rooms of the Commons, participating in a variety of committees and meetings necessary for an effective parliamentary process.
D. Britain is a democracy, yet its people are not, as one might expect in a democracy, constitutionally in control of the state. The constitutional situation is an apparently contradictory one. As a result of a historical process the people of Britain are subjects of the Crown, accepting the Queen as the head of the state. Yet even the Queen is not sovereign in any substantial sense since she receives her authority from Parliament, and is subject to its direction in almost all matters. This curious situation came about as a result of a long struggle for power between the Crown and Parliament during the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries.
E. Her Majesty’s Government governs in the name of the Queen, and its hub, Downing Street, lies in Whitehall, a short walk from Parliament. Following a general election, the Queen invites the leader of the majority party represented in the Commons, to form a government on her behalf. Government ministers are invariably members of the House of Commons, but infrequently members of the House of Lords are appointed. All government members continue to represent “constituencies” which elected them.
F. Each parliamentary session begins with the “State Opening of Parliament”, a ceremonial occasion in which the Queen proceeds from Buckingham Palace to the Palace of Westminster where she delivers the Queen’s Speech from her throne in the House of Lords. Her speech is drafted by her government, and describes what the government intends to implement during the forthcoming session. Leading members of the Commons may hear the speech from the far end of the chamber, but are not allowed to enter the House of Lords.
G. The upper chamber of Parliament is not democratic in any sense at all. It consists of four categories of peer. The majority are hereditary peers, a total of almost 800, but of whom only about half take an active interest in the affairs of the state. A smaller number, between 350 and 400, are “life” peers – an idea introduced in 1958 to elevate to the peerage certain people who rendered political or public service to the nation. The purpose was not only to honour but also to enhance the quality of business done in the Lords.
1. GLOBAL LANGUAGE
2. HOW IT ALL BEGAN
3. GREAT BORROWER
4. THE LANGUAGE OF COMPUTERS
5. ENGLISH IN OTHER LANGUAGES
6. FRENCH INFLUENCE
7. CRAZY ENGLISH
8. DO YOU SPEAK COCKNEY?
A. It’s strange that the differences in Britain itself are greater than those between Britain and other English-speaking countries. For a Londoner, it’s easier to understand an American than a Cockney. Cockney has a pronunciation, accent and vocabulary unlike any other dialect. Cockney speech is famous for its rhyming slang. A word is replaced by a phrase or a person’s name which rhymes with it.
B. Other languages absorb English words too, often giving them new forms and meanings. So many Japanese, French, Spanish and Germans mix English words with their mother tongues that the resulting hybrids are called Japlish, Franglais, Spanglish and Denglish, In Japanese, for example, there is a verb Makudonaru, to eat at McDonald’s.
C. Have you ever wondered why the English language has different words for animals and meat? When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, French became the official language of the court. The English would look after the animals and cook the meat, still calling the animals pig, sheep and cow. The Normans, when they saw the cooked meat arrive at their table, would use French words – pork, mutton and beef.
D. English is mixing with other languages around the world. It’s probably the biggest borrower. Words newly coined or in vogue in one language are very often added to English as well. There are words from 120 languages in its vocabulary, including Arabic, French, German, Greek, Italian, Russian, Spanish and Turkish. 70 per cent of the English vocabulary are loan words and only 30 per cent of the words are native.
E. Have you ever wondered how many people speak English? It’s around 400 million people. Geographically, English is the most wide-spread language on earth, and it’s second only to Chinese in the number of people who speak it. It’s spoken in the British Isles, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and much of Canada and South Africa. English is also a second language of another 300 million people living in more than 60 countries.
F. In Shakespeare’s time only a few million people spoke English. All of them lived in what is now Great Britain. Through the centuries, as a result of various historical events, English spread throughout the world. There were only 30,000 words in Old English. Modern English has the largest vocabulary in the world – more than 600,000 words.
G. In the English language blackboards can be green or white, and blackberries are green and then red before they are ripe. There is no egg in eggplant, neither mush nor room in mushroom, neither pine nor apple in pineapple, no ham in hamburger. Why is it that a king rules a kingdom but a queen doesn’t rule a queendom? If the plural of tooth is teeth, shouldn’t the plural of booth be beeth? And in what other language can your nose run?
1. CHRISTMAS SHOPPING
2. CRIME AT CHRISTMAS
3. CHRISTMAS TRADITIONS
4. CHRISTMAS – A FAMILY CELEBRATION
5. CHRISTMAS IN RUSSIA
6. CHRISTMAS DINNER
7. CHRISTMAS WEATHER
8. NEW YEAR’S CELEBRATIONS
A. There are a lot of traditions connected with Christmas but perhaps the most important one is the giving of presents. Family members wrap up their gifts and leave them at the bottom of the Christmas tree to be found on Christmas morning. Children leave a long sock or stocking at the end of their beds on Christmas Eve, 24th December, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and bring them small presents, fruit and nuts.
B. At some time on Christmas day the family will sit down to a big turkey dinner followed by Christmas pudding or Christmas cake. As for Christmas cake, heavy and overfilling it is not to everybody’s taste. To make things worse, it takes weeks to make and when it is ready it can last until Easter, so if you don’t like it, you have to try and eat some at Christmas to avoid being haunted by it months after.
C. Officially Christmas and New Year celebrations run from the 24th of December to the 2nd of January. However, for many Brits the Christmas marathon starts as early as the beginning of October with the first festive adverts on TV. The idea of Christmas shopping is that you spend as much money as you can on anything you cast your eyes on, preferably something neither you nor your family or friends will ever use. An average British family spends 670 pounds or more around the Christmas period.
D. Long live Christmas! -say pickpockets, car thieves and burglars getting their share of Christmas shopping. Every year thousands of people get their wallets stolen in overcrowded shops and streets. Lots of lovely presents, which somebody spent so much time and money on, disappear without a trace when cars and homes are broken into. As much as 9% of people experience a burglary in December.
E. Who doesn’t want to have a white Christmas? Playing snowballs and making a snowman with the whole family on Christmas Day is most people’s dream (apart from the countries like Australia that celebrate Christmas in summer, on the beach). This dream is more likely to come true in northern countries like Russia, but for the British people it’s different. Although it’s not uncommon to get some snow in Scotland and northern England, the rest of Britain is normally only lucky enough to get some frost. In most cases the weather is wet and gloomy.
F. New year is a time for celebrating and making a new start in life. In Britain many people make New Year’s resolutions. This involves people promising themselves that they will improve their behaviour in some way, by giving up bad habits. People might decide to give up smoking, for example, or to go on a diet. These promises are often broken in the first few days of the New Year, however!
G. Christmas is celebrated on the 25th of December. For most families, this is the most important festival of the year. On this day many people are travelling home to be with their families. Most houses are decorated with brightly-coloured paper or holly, and there is usually a Christmas tree in the corner of the front room. Unfortunately, not all families get on well together. As it is a well-known fact, some magazines publish tips on how to cope with Christmas, such as yoga, meditation or holidays abroad.
1. National language
2. Freedom of media
3. Customs and traditions
4. Public transport
6. Leisure and sport
7. Modern history
8. Economic outlook
A. Lithuania is situated on the eastern Baltic coast and borders Latvia in the north, the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation and Poland in the southwest, and Belarus in the southwest and east. The geometrical centre of Europe lies in eastern Lithuania 25km north of its capital Vilnius. The landscape varies between lowland plains and hilly uplands and has a complex network of rivers.
B. Lithuania has historically been the least developed of the Baltic republics, with a smaller industrial base and greater dependence on agriculture. Sugar beet, cereals, potatoes and vegetables are the main crops. Lithuania’s foreign trade has gradually changed during the 1990s, and now the European Union, not Russia, is its main trading partner.
C. Lithuanian is the mother tongue for 80% of the population. After the country joined the European Union in 2004 this language has become one of the EU official languages. Lithuania has a large number of dialects for such a small territory, including High Lithuanian and Low Lithuanian.
D. Lithuania offers different opportunities for a nice vacation. You can explore a range of large sand dunes and pine forests while hiking in the Curonian Spit National Park, take part in some action sports in Nida, a village that makes a true paradise for sailing, windsurfing, paragliding and kiting, or try out more extreme sports, such as hot-air ballooning and gliding.
E. Those who are interested in folklore may enjoy their stay in Lithuania in any season of the year. The Mardi Gras celebrations are held in various Lithuanian cities and small towns at the beginning of February. The Folklore Festival is held in Vilnius’ Old Town during in May. There you can see craft fairs, taste traditional dishes, join song and parties and listen to psalms.
F. Lithuania’s TV market is dominated by commercial channels. The radio market is similarly competitive. Lithuania’s media are free and operate independently of the state, and there are no government-owned newspapers. However, politicians do occasionally attempt to influence editorial policy.
G. In cities and towns there are buses and trolleybuses, which usually run from 05.00 to 23.00, but times do vary between routes. You can’t pay the fare to the driver in cash but you can buy coupons from him. Coupons can be also bought at news kiosks before boarding. Minibuses are less crowded but more expensive.
2. Ways of behaviour
4. Favourite food
5. Place to stay in
6. Eating out
7. National languages
8. Great outdoors
A. Norway is first of all a land for those who love nature. The breathtaking fjords in the southwest of the country and Europe’s largest glacier are Norway’s most attractive places, but there are many other reasons to visit this country in the north of Europe. There are wonderful opportunities to enjoy skiing, fishing and rock-climbing. Others can take pleasure in the charm of the Norwegian countryside, with its countless valleys, high mountain lakes and unbelievable views.
B. Many tourists coming to Norway in the summer prefer to stay in a cottage used by northern Norwegian fishermen during the winter cod-fishing season. Equipped with all the necessary facilities, these cottages are leased to holidaymakers, providing an attractive form of accommodation. They will often be actually over the water. Catching your own fish and cooking it on the fire will add a few pleasant moments to your holiday.
C. Norway has a long history of fishing, although much of the high quality shellfish and other species caught off the coast are exported. However, fish remains a common dish, along with meat, potatoes and other root vegetables, although tastes have changed in recent years to involve a wider international choice, including pizzas and burgers. The most popular traditional hot snack is a form of sausage, sold at numerous outlets.
D. Traditionally entertainment in the country is largely home-based, but this has been changing in recent years. Most Norwegians tend to go out only on Fridays and Saturdays, the rest of the week being fairly quiet. This is in no small part due to the high prices of food and drink, and the fact that the working day starts early. And at weekends, it is normal for the Norwegians to enjoy drinks at home before leaving it as late as 11.00 p.m.
E. Restaurants tend to be concentrated in city centres, while in recent years the pub culture has been gradually arriving in Norway. Cities are nowadays well supplied with a wide choice of bars, many of which offer food that has a lower price compared to the restaurants. Most villages of any size have at least one cafe or restaurant where it is possible to drink and eat out.
F. Norwegians are generally sincere and polite, though communication doesn’t often come easy — it is usually up to you to break the ice and establish contact. They can be very direct and rarely say ‘please’, which may seem rude, but it’s due to the fact that the Norwegian language rarely uses the word. On the other hand, they say ‘thank you’ for almost everything. They also tend to address people by their first name even on many formal occasions.
G. Norway is an expensive country. As labour is costly here, anything that can be seen as a ‘service’ will generally be more expensive than you expect. Transport costs can also be a killer, because the country is large and distances are long. But there is one good point: Norway has a high quality of tap water. So buying bottled drinking water is usually unnecessary and this will save your budget.
1. Footballers’ diets
2. Ideal football shape
3. Length matters
4. Puree instead of pasta
5. Secret born in the USSR
6. Stress or relaxation
7. Flying fruit
8. Referee’s perspective
A. Good footballers must have something in their genes. Scientists have discovered a link between the length of a footballer’s ring finger and their ability as a player. They compared the ring and index fingers of top players. Players whose ring fingers were longer compared to their index fingers were more likely to be elite players. Some of the players found to have long ring fingers are Bryan Robson, Ossie Ardiles, Glenn Hoddle, Sir Stanley Matthews and Gazza.
B. Fitness training is absolutely necessary for a first-rate football team. Jogging up and down the stadium a few times is not enough. What footballers really need is a quick start. Footballers can get this ability to start running very quickly by using a training method called ‘plyometrics’. In the 1960s, athletes in the Soviet Union used plyometric exercises to improve their results in jumping. Step by step, the method has become very important for many sports that include sprinting and jumping.
C. In the past, footballers used to have a big fried breakfast — or even a roast dinner — before a football match. In the new era of professional football, the menu of modern players has been radically reformed. Arsenal manager, Arsene Wenger, is known for his scientific method of feeding his team. When he first came to the club in 1996, he at once changed the players’ dinner menus. Sugar, red meat, chips, fried foods and dairy products were out. Vegetables, fish, chicken and plenty of water were in.
D. French diet specialists heavily criticised the pre-match diet of the England players in Euro ‘96. Their menu of tomato soup and spaghetti was said to be more likely to produce wind than a win. Potatoes, according to French scientists, make the best meal on the day of a game. They have glucides, which give the player a lot of energy. They also include useful vitamins. According to one piece of research, a player should eat 200-300 grams of mashed potatoes, boiled for 20 minutes, exactly three hours before going to the game.
E. Physics can explain a football wonder — the banana kick. This happens when a ball suddenly changes its direction at the end of its flight. At a certain speed, the air flowing over a flying ball becomes ‘turbulent’. This means that the air moves irregularly over the ball. As the ball slows down, the air becomes ‘smooth’ again. This slowdown makes the ball turn dramatically, creating the wonderful ‘banana’ kicks that the spectators like so much.
F. These days, footballs are made in a design based on the ‘Buckminster Ball’. The American architect Richard Buckminster Fuller came up with the design when he was trying to find a way for constructing buildings using a minimum of materials. The ball is a series of geometrical figures, which can be fitted together to make a round body. The modern football is in fact a Buckminster Ball consisting of 32 pieces. When they are joined together and filled with air they make a perfect sphere.
G. Research has shown that watching the World Cup is good for our health even if your team goes out on penalties. The scientists suggest that a common interest and a nationalistic pride are very important. The competition makes people less concentrated on their own problems. They are also more patient and can cope with crises much easier. Watching football can, however, also be disappointing, especially when it comes to the decisions of referees and officials. Besides, watching penalties can be very nervous.
1. Training the mind
2. Welsh roots
3. Quick reaction
4. Chemistry in tennis
5. Too fast
6. Losing control
7. Unexpected prize
8. Ads with wings
A. By now Wimbledon has become a popular national festival, together with Ascot and the Cup Final. Many people in Britain don’t know that tennis was first played in Wales. It was there, in 1873, that Major Walter Wingfield played a game with the recently invented rubber balls and enjoyed it so much, that he decided to develop the standards of the game. He published the first book of tennis rules later that year. The first Wimbledon championship was held a few years later in 1877 and the British Lawn Tennis Association formed in 1888.
B. Good mental preparation is necessary for professional tennis players. In a long match they can be on the court for several hours with nobody to talk to. There can be hundreds of stops from the crowd, their opponent and, especially at Wimbledon, the rain. Players need to practice methods for improving their concentration and for motivating themselves when the game is going against them. They are often taught to imagine some situations, such as a tense tie-break. Then they imagine what to do with it.
C. Many players find it impossible to stay calm in the stressful situation of a long tennis match and let their temper out. John McEnroe was famous for his quarrels with referees. Several players have been given warnings for throwing the racket or swearing. Some players lose matches they could easily win because their mind lets them down. Pat Rafter said that he couldn’t breathe in his 2000 Wimbledon final. The stress of being near the victory can be too much for a person.
D. The power of today’s tennis game is only partly created by the athletes themselves. Much of it comes from their rackets. New designs mean players can hit the ball with more speed and accuracy than ever before. It started in the 1970s when the traditional wooden racket was replaced with metal. Since then different materials have been used. Graphite has made the biggest influence. Now the graphite can be mixed with materials such as boron and titanium to produce even stronger, and lighter, rackets.
E. Speed isn’t always a good thing. Many fans are complaining that the speed of the game is making tennis boring to watch. After two years of testing, a new ball has now been invented which could slow down tennis and make it more exciting to watch. The ball is put together in exactly the same way as the one used now, but is 6% larger in diameter. The bigger ball gives the receiver 10% more reaction time in which to return the serve. So the number of aces — serves in a match that the receiver fails to return — will be far fewer.
F. When Irishman John Boland travelled to Athens for the first modern Olympic Games in 1896, he had no idea he would return home with the gold medal in tennis. But then, he had no idea he would compete either — he went to watch the competion. In comparison, today’s Olympic tennis players include some of the best athletes in the world. They are used to five-star hotels and hundreds of thousands of dollars, but at the Olympic Games they will stay in the Olympic Village and compete for nothing but a gold medal.
G. The Wimbledon tennis tournament is famous for pigeons that sometimes come flying on to Centre Court and stop the game. So, producers of a video tennis game designed for PlayStation2 decided to use specially trained homing pigeons, decorated with the game’s logo. Twenty birds will be spray-painted with the Virtual Tennis logo and trained to fly in and out of the home of British tennis during the matches of the Wimbledon championship. The advertising pigeons will go straight for the fans and show their logos to them.
1. Controlling skies
2. Lack of safety
3. Bicycle is faster
4. Office at home
5. Blocked roads
6. Paid roads
7. Improving railways
8. Buses instead of cars
A. The world’s first public passenger railway was built in Great Britain in 1826 and ran between the industrial north-eastern towns of Stockton and Darlington. After 180 years’ experience the British say that their trains still don’t seem to run efficiently or even safely. On average, about 500 accidents with broken rail tracks happen in the country every year.
B. The British government is promising to give £33.5 billion to modernise the railways before 2010. Another £30 billion is to come from the private sector. The main target is to increase safety and speed. For example, new London-to-Scotland high-speed trains significantly reduce journey times and in 2004 a warning system was installed throughout the country.
C. Statistics show that only 12% of all journeys made in Britain are by public transport. The remaining 88% are made by car. Every year British people spend about two weeks travelling to and from work including nine days in their own cars. But anyone will say this isn’t a quick and easy way to travel. In fact, a journey from London to Manchester frequently takes seven hours. A cyclist could get there quicker.
D. Every year there are about half a million traffic jams in Britain. That is nearly 10,000 a week. There are hundreds of big traffic jams every day. According to the forecast, the number of jams will grow by 20 per cent over the next ten years. Nearly a quarter British people find themselves in a jam every day and 55 per cent at least once a week.
E. Nowadays many British people take their children to school by car. Twenty years ago, nearly one in three primary school children made their own way to school. Now only one child in nine makes their own way. During the school year at 08:50 a. m. one car in five on the roads in any British town is taking children to school. The solution could be special school buses widely used in the USA.
F. Many scientists hope that new technologies allowing more people to work at home may help with traffic problems. Fewer people will work from 9 to 5 and travel to and from work during the rush hour. But only 15% of people now want to spend more time working at home. The workplace is, for many people, a place to meet other people and to talk to them, so they would miss it if they worked from home.
G. In 1903, the Wright brothers made the first aeroplane flight. It only lasted 12 seconds but changed the world forever. A century later, air travel is no longer a miracle, it is part of everyday life. One billion air passengers now fly every year — that’s equivalent to a sixth of the world’s population. To make sure everything runs smoothly, there are special air traffic control centres in each country which watch every aeroplane.
1. Useful Invention
2. US Younger Generation
3. Modern Branch of Industry
4. Historical Separation
5. Verbal Misunderstanding
6. Britain, the World Empire
7. All in One
8. Old Enough
A. For 150 years America was a British colony. At that time British and American English were almost exactly the same. When America won the War of Independence in 1776, it became a free country. The USA was quickly growing richer, and millions of Europeans came to settle here. They brought new words and expressions to the language. As a result, English in America began to develop in its own way and today, there are certain differences in pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and spelling between American and British English.
B. Typical American teenagers are in fact very ordinary. They think their teachers make them work too hard, they love their parents but are sure they don’t understand anything, and their friendships are the most important things in their lives. Some of them do have a lot of money to spend, but usually they have earned it themselves. Most young people take jobs while they are in school. They work at movie theatres, fast-food restaurants, gas stations, and stores to pay for their clothes and entertainment. Maybe this is what makes them so independent from their parents at such a young age?
C. Is it possible to have one device with the functions of a TV-set, a PC and the Internet? With the advent of Internet TV it has become a reality. Imagine watching a film on TV and getting information on the actors in the film at the same time! To enter web-addresses and write e-mails you use a remote control and an on-screen keyboard or an optional wireless keyboard. By clicking a button, you can also read adverts, ‘chat’ with a friend, plan your holiday and play your favourite video games. And in the future you’ll be able to change the plot of the film you are watching!
D. When do you stop being a child and become an adult? There are lots of laws about the age when you can start doing things. In Britain, for example, you can get married at 16, but you cannot get a tattoo until you are 18. In most American states you can have a driving licence at 17, but you cannot drink until you are 21. In Russia you can be put to prison when you are 16, but you cannot vote until you are 18. In fact, most European countries and the US have the same age for voting: 18. Many people, however, think that this is unfair. They would like to vote at an earlier age.
E. Blue jeans were a by-product of the Gold Rush. The man who invented jeans, Levi Strauss, emigrated from Germany to San Francisco in 1850. Levi was 20 years old, and he decided to sell clothes to the miners who were in California in search of gold. When he was told that durable trousers were the most needed item of clothing, Levi began making jeans of heavy tent canvas. Levi’s jeans were an immediate success. Soon he switched from canvas to a cotton fabric which came from Nimes, a city in France. The miners called it ‘denim’ and bought a lot of trousers from Strauss.
F. Some fifty years ago people hadn’t even heard of computers, and today we cannot imagine our life without them. Computer technology is now the fastest-growing industry in the world. The first computer was the size of a minibus and weighed a ton. Today, its job can be done by a chip the size of a pinhead. And the revolution is still going on. Very soon we’ll have computers that we’ll wear on our wrists or even in our glasses and ear-rings. Such wearable computers are now being developed in the USA.
G. Some American words are simply unknown on the other side of the Atlantic, and vice versa. But a lot of words exist in both variants, and these can cause trouble. British visitors to America are often surprised at the different meanings that familiar words have acquired there. If an Englishman asks in an American store for a vest, he will be offered a waistcoat. If he wants to buy a handbag for his wife, he should ask for a purse, and if she wants to buy a pair of tights, she should ask for pantyhose: tights in America are what ballet dancers wear.
1. Lucky escape
2. Long journey
3. Good way to meet
4. Growing in popularity
5. Ordering in
6. Fast food is unhealthy
7. A new way to buy
8. Too much choice
A. When you are tired and don’t want to cook, just pick up the phone. Restaurants are expensive and take some time and effort to reach if you don’t live in the centre of town. Ordering food for home delivery is cheap and these days there is a huge choice. Indian and Chinese are the most popular but I prefer to get in a pizza.
B. A school group on a skiing holiday to Italy narrowly avoided disaster when their coach left the road and fell eighty meters into a valley. Trees slowed down the falling coach and because of the fresh new snow the vehicle landed quite softly. Amazingly no one was injured.
C. A teenager from London is making news around the world. On his recent holiday in Australia he set off without his mobile phone. Experts are amazed that he is still alive after walking for fourteen days, surviving extreme temperatures and living off the land. However, a lot of Australians are unhappy with him. The rescue cost is estimated at more than 100,000 dollars.
D. You can buy almost anything, new or second hand, on the internet. On one site you can offer the price you want to pay for something. Whoever offers the highest price can buy that item. Recently I made the highest offer for a nearly new pair of skis. However, I only paid half of what they would have cost new in a shop.
E. Making new friends on the internet makes so much sense. You can see someone’s photo and read if they share your interests and opinions. The important thing is you can spend time getting to know people who are attractive to you and looking for the same things in life that you are. Still, for personal safety, most sites recommend that in person you meet initially in a public place like a cafe or a gallery.
F. I like eating out but some restaurants have huge menus. And usually every item sounds mouth watering. The trouble is I like to read about everything on offer and sometimes waiters wait for me rather than on me! The other issue is how they can offer so much whilst maintaining quality? I’d rather take one of five options knowing that each one was brilliant.
G. “Facebook” is a social networking website that has 250 million members and despite lots of criticism by employers, governments and media, continues to attract thousands of new users daily. In spite of claims of concerns about privacy, safety and wasting time at work, “Facebook” is one of the most rapidly establishing phenomena of recent years.
1. For parents and friends
2. Radiation threat
3. Threat for kids
4. Feeling of safety
5. Mobile future
6. Mobile booking office
7. New language
8. SMS to premier
A. Mobile phones use ‘radio waves’ to send signals. Since the 1920s, scientists have known that radio waves can cause the heating of the skin and influence the nervous system. But mobile phones don’t produce many radio waves. Still children should be especially careful about mobile phone use because their nervous system may be hurt. Children should only use mobiles for short calls.
B. It is known that the strength of radio wave radiation decreases with distance. It suggests that hands-free sets may be effective in avoiding all the dangers of mobile phones. But another study described an increase in radiation that reached the user of a hands-free set. It says that the cable of the hands-free set acted as an antenna, directing more radio waves into the user’s ear.
C. Train passengers will soon be able to buy tickets on their mobile phone. Chiltern Railways plans to sell tickets through mobile phones. The new technology sends a code to a mobile phone in a text message, which passengers can then scan at the station ticket barrier. It’s hoped the method will make buying tickets easier for passengers and help fight against queues at stations.
D. Many parents now use mobiles to control their children’s behaviour. It gives parents peace of mind and makes young people feel protected. Parents say that young people are safer with mobiles than without them. But, while parents said they liked to call their children on the mobile to actually hear their voice, young people liked to send text messages to parents.
E. A research showed that those young people who have a mobile feel more independent and often use it to plan meetings both relatives and peers. In particular, young people often use mobiles to ask their parents if they can come home later. The study showed that girls more often text parents to let them know they were safe than boys. They also use text messaging for socializing purposes.
F. It is not only parents who want to connect with young people through mobile technologies. Nowadays politicians and different organizations look for ways to use text messaging as a channel for communication with the young. In late 2004, the UK government offered people the opportunity to ‘text Tony’. People were invited to send a text question to the prime minister to be answered as part of a ‘mobile chat’.
G. The popularity of text messages led to the development of a special system of words or ‘chat speak’. For example, acronyms, that are words made from the first letters of other words, are often used both in online chatrooms and text messages sent to your mobile phone. This ‘chat speak’ is very popular with children who are fast at texting. Parents might be interested to know that ‘PAW’ means ‘parents are watching’!
1. A taste of everything
2. Shop till you drop
3. City’s tourist attractions
4. Ancient traditions live on
5. Activities for the adventurous and hardy
6. On the crossroads of religions
7. For the body, mind and soul
8. From the high peaks to the deep seas
A. Today Jakarta has much to offer, ranging from museums, art and antique markets, first class shopping to accommodations and a wide variety of cultural activities. Jakarta’s most famous landmark, the National Monument or Monas is a 137m obelisk topped with a flame sculpture coated with 35 kg of gold. Among other places one can mention the National museum that holds an extensive collection of ethnographic artifacts and relics, the Maritime Museum that exhibits Indonesia’s seafaring traditions, including models of sea going vessels.
B. Sumatra is a paradise for nature lovers, its national parks are the largest in the world, home to a variety of monkeys, tigers and elephants. Facing the open sea, the western coastline of Sumatra and the waters surrounding Nias Island have big waves that make them one of the best surfer’s beaches in Indonesia. There are beautiful coral reefs that are ideal for diving. For those who prefer night dives, the waters of Riau Archipelago offer a rewarding experience with marine scavengers of the dark waters.
C. Various establishments offer professional pampering service with floral baths, body scrubs, aromatic oils, massages and meditation; rituals and treatments that use spices and aromatic herbs to promote physical and mental wellness. Various spa hotels are extremely popular. Indonesians believe that when treating the body you cure the mind.
D. Jakarta has a distinctly cosmopolitan flavor. Tantalize your taste buds with a gastronomic spree around the city’s many eateries. Like French gourmet dining, exotic Asian cuisine, American fast food, stylish cafes, restaurants all compete to find a way into your heart through your stomach. The taste of Indonesia’s many cultures can be found in almost any corner of the city: hot and spicy food from West Sumatra, sweet tastes of Dental Java, the tangy fish dishes of North Sulawesi.
E. In the face of constant exposure to modernization and foreign influences, the native people still faithfully cling to their culture and rituals. The pre-Hindu Bali Aga tribe still maintains their own traditions of architecture, pagan religion, dance and music, such as unique rituals of dances and gladiator-like battles between youths. On the island of Siberut native tribes have retained their Neolithic hunter-gathering culture.
F. Whether you are a serious spender or half hearted shopper, there is sure to be something for everybody in Jakarta. Catering to diverse tastes and pockets, the wide variety of things you can buy in Jakarta is mind boggling from the best of local handicrafts to haute couture labels. Modern super and hyper markets, multi-level shopping centers, retail and specialty shops, sell quality goods at a competitive price. Sidewalk bargains range from tropical blooms of vivid colors and scents in attractive bouquets to luscious fruits of the seasons.
G. The land’s long and rich history can’t be separated from the influence of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. There is one of the oldest Hindu temples in Java, the majestic Buddhist ‘monastery on the hill’, Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world. About 17 km away from this monastery is a 9th century temple complex built by the Sanjaya dynasty. Prambanan complex is dedicated to the Hindu trinity: Ciwa, Vishnu and Brahma. The spread of Islam also left interesting monuments such as the 15th century Minaret Mosque in Kudus.
1. Party dessert
2. Outdoor game
3. Taking care of a pet
4. Collecting things
5. Giving a party
6. Party animals
7. Fun on the way
8. Party game
A. Ask your parents for permission to have a party. Decide what kind of party you want and whether it will be held indoors or outdoors. Send written invitations to your friends. Tell them what kind of party you are having, at what time, where, and whether or not the guests should wear costumes. Make a list of games you would like to play. Ask your mother to help you prepare refreshments. Ice cream, cake, cookies, and lemonade are good for any party.
B. This activity makes everybody laugh. Have the guests sit around the room. Choose one person to be a pussycat. The pussy must go over to a guest and do his/her best to make the guest laugh. He/she can make funny meows and walk around like a cat. The pussy goes from one guest to another until someone laughs. The first one to laugh becomes the new pussy.
C. It’s easy to make a cake from a cake mix that you get from the grocery store. You usually add only water or milk. Cake mixes come in many flavours, such as chocolate, lemon, banana, vanilla and others. When you make a cake from a mix, always follow the directions on the package carefully. Then you can be sure that your cake will turn out right and your guests will enjoy it. Many mixes have a small envelope of powdered frosting hidden inside the flour.
D. As you ride on a bus with your friends, get someone to start singing. Everyone joins in. At the first crossroad, another person starts a different song, and everyone joins in. Keep changing songs at every crossroad.
E. Looking after cats is easy. They wash themselves every day and eat almost any food. Cats like to drink milk and cream. But they need to be fed on fish, beef, liver, and other kinds of meat. They need a clean, dry bed at night. You can use a basket or a cardboard box for your cat’s bed. Cats like to play with a rubber ball or chase a string.
F. You can have a whole army of toy soldiers made of tin, wood or plastic. Some may be dressed in fancy uniforms, some may be sitting on horses. Others may be ready for battle, carrying guns and shoulder packs. You can have soldiers from other countries, or only Civil War soldiers or only modern soldiers. If you get two soldiers that are alike, trade your extra soldier with another toy soldier lover.
G. Even animals get involved in elections. The donkey and elephant have been political symbols in the USA for more than 100 years. Why? In 1828, Democrat Andrew Jackson ran for president. Critics said he was stubborn as a donkey. The donkey has been the symbol
of the Democratic Party ever since. In the 1870s, newspaper cartoonists began using the elephant to stand for the Republican Party.
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