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Задания 6. Понимание основного содержания текста

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1
Задание 6 № 60

Установите соответствие рубрик 1-6 текстам A–E. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1) History

2) Money

3) Statistics

4) Geography

5) Sightseeing

6) Jobs

 

ABCDE

А. Mosfilm is the centre of the Russian film industry. It is as famous as Hollywood in the USA or Bollywood in India. Tours to the studio have become increasingly popular with tourists, as they allow to view Mosfilm’s enormous depot with 170 tanks and 50 vintage cars. Tour guides say that everyone hopes to see a famous actor or an actress when they are on an excursion there.

 

В. January 30, 1924 is considered the birthday of Mosfilm studio. On this day the first film produced by Mosfilm was released. It was On the Wings Skyward directed by Boris Mikhin. During the Great Patriotic War, the film studio personnel moved to Alma-Ata but continued working. All in all, Mosfilm has produced about 3,000 feature films.

 

C. It takes a lot of different people to make a good film. A screen writer writes the script of the future film. Then a producer finds enough money to make this film and a film director chooses actors and actresses to play in this film. You also need people for costumes and make-up. Film-making is becoming more and more complex and requires a lot of IT specialists and technical staff.

 

D. Robert Downey once held the title of highest-paid actor in Hollywood, and now he is only the sixth on the list. Mark Wahlberg made more than any actor in the world this year. He earned huge sums from his two films, “Daddy’s Home” and “Transformers: The Last Knight”. He also earned some cash for appearing in his family’s reality show “Wahlburgers”.

 

E. According to a recent survey, 13 percent of Americans go to the movies about once a month, 7 percent go see movies in the movie theater several times a month, and 31 percent go less than once a year. It is interesting that 52 percent of American adults prefer watching movies at home. The U.S. is the third largest film market in the world, only behind China and India.


2
Задание 6 № 230

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Places to stay in

2. Arts and culture

3. New country image

4. Going out

5. Different landscapes

6. Transport system

7. National languages

8. Eating out

 

 

A. Belgium has always had a lot more than the faceless administrative buildings that you can see in the outskirts of its capital, Brussels. A number of beautiful historic cities and Brussels itself offer impressive architecture, lively nightlife, first-rate restaurants and numerous other attractions for visitors. Today, the old-fashioned idea of ‘boring Belgium’ has been well and truly forgotten, as more and more people discover its very individual charms for themselves.

 

B. Nature in Belgium is varied. The rivers and hills of the Ardennes in the southeast contrast sharply with the rolling plains which make up much of the northern and western countryside. The most notable features are the great forest near the frontier with Germany and Luxembourg and the wide, sandy beaches of the northern coast.

 

C. It is easy both to enter and to travel around pocket- sized Belgium which is divided into the Dutchspeaking north and the French-speaking south. Officially the Belgians speak Dutch, French and German. Dutch is slightly more widely spoken than French, and German is spoken the least. The Belgians, living in the north, will often prefer to answer visitors in English rather than French, even if the visitor’s French is good.

 

D. Belgium has a wide range of hotels from 5-star luxury to small family pensions and inns. In some regions of the country, farm holidays are available. There visitors can (for a small cost) participate in the daily work of the farm. There are plenty of opportunities to rent furnished villas, flats, rooms, or bungalows for a holiday period. These holiday houses and flats are comfortable and well-equipped.

 

E. The Belgian style of cooking is similar to French, based on meat and seafood. Each region in Belgium has its own special dish. Butter, cream, beer and wine are generously used in cooking. The Belgians are keen on their food, and the country is very well supplied with excellent restaurants to suit all budgets. The perfect evening out here involves a delicious meal, and the restaurants and cafes are busy at all times of the week.

 

F. As well as being one of the best cities in the world for eating out (both for its high quality and range), Brussels has a very active and varied nightlife. It has 10 theatres which produce plays in both Dutch and French. There are also dozens of cinemas, numerous discos and many night-time cafes in Brussels. Elsewhere, the nightlife choices depend on the size of the town, but there is no shortage of fun to be had in any of the major cities.

 

G. There is a good system of underground trains, trams and buses in all the major towns and cities. In addition, Belgium’s waterways offer a pleasant way to enjoy the country. Visitors can take a one-hour cruise around the canals of Bruges (sometimes described as the Venice of the North) or an extended cruise along the rivers and canals linking the major cities of Belgium and the Netherlands.

 

 

 

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3
Задание 6 № 231

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Places to stay in

2. Public transport

3. Cultural differences

4. Nightlife

5. Camping holidays

6. Contacts with neighbours

7. Different landscapes

8. Eating out

 

 

A. Sweden is a land of contrast, from the Danish influence of the southwest to the Laplanders wandering freely with their reindeer in the wild Arctic north. And while Sweden in cities is stylish and modern, the countryside offers many simpler pleasures for those who look for peace and calm. The land and its people have an air of reserved calm, and still the world’s best-selling pop group Abba, which used to attract crowds of hysterical fans, come from Sweden.

 

B. Historically, Sweden has an interesting story. Its dealings with the outside world began, in fact, during Viking times, when in addition to the well- known surprise attacks of the nearby lands, there was much trading around the Baltic, mostly in furs and weapons. Swedish connections with the other Scandinavian countries, Norway and Denmark, have been strong since the Middle Ages. The monarchies of all three are still closely linked.

 

C. Sweden’s scenery has a gentler charm than that of neighbouring Norway’s rocky coast. Much of Sweden is forested, and there are thousands lakes, notably large pools near the capital, Stockholm. The lakeside resort in the centre of Sweden is popular with Scandinavians, but most visitors prefer first the Baltic islands. The largest island, Gotland, with its ruined medieval churches, is a particular attraction.

 

D. Sweden boasts a good range of hotels, covering the full spectrum of prices and standards. Many of them offer discounts in summer and at weekends during the winter. In addition, working farms throughout Sweden offer accommodation, either in the main farmhouse or in a cottage nearby. Forest cabins and chalets are also available throughout the country, generally set in beautiful surroundings, near lakes, in quiet forest glades or on an island in some remote place.

 

E. Living in a tent or caravan with your family or friends at weekends and on holiday is extremely popular in Sweden and there is a fantastic variety of special places. Most are located on a lakeside or by the sea with free bathing facilities close at hand. There are over 600 campsites in the country. It is often possible to rent boats or bicycles, play mini-golf or tennis, ride a horse or relax in a sauna. It is also possible to camp in areas away from other houses.

 

F. Swedes like plain meals, simply prepared from the freshest ingredients. As a country with a sea coast and many freshwater lakes, fish dishes are found on all hotel or restaurant menus. Top-class restaurants in Sweden are usually fairly expensive, but even the smallest towns have reasonably priced self-service restaurants and grill bars. Many restaurants all over Sweden offer a special dish of the day at a reduced price that includes main course, salad, soft drink and coffee.

 

G. Stockholm has a variety of pubs, cafes, clubs, restaurants, cinemas and theatres but in the country evenings tend to be very calm and peaceful. From August to June the Royal Ballet performs in Stockholm. Music and theatre productions take place in many cities during the summer in the open air. Outside Stockholm in the 18th-century palace there are performances of 18th-century opera very popular with tourists.

 

 

 

ГоворящийABCDEF
Утверждение

4
Задание 6 № 232

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Education

2. Way of life

3. Public transport

4. Geography

5. Places to stay in

6. Favourite food

7. Hot spots for kids

8. Nightlife

 

 

A. Denmark, a small kingdom in northern Europe, has a lot of interesting places for tourists with children. For example, Legoland, a theme park, has become the largest tourist attraction in Denmark outside its capital Copenhagen. And Copenhagen itself is world famous for its Tivoli Gardens amusement park, which opened in 1843 in the heart of the city. The park offers ballet and circus performances, restaurants, concerts, and fireworks displays.

 

B. Denmark is the smallest Scandinavian country, consisting of the Jutland peninsula, north of Germany, and over 400 islands of various sizes, some inhabited and linked to the mainland by ferry or bridge. Throughout the country, low hills provide a constant change of attractive views; there are also cool and shady forests of beech trees, large areas of open land covered with rough grass, a beautiful lake district, sand dunes and white cliffs on the coast.

 

C. More than four-fifths of all Danes live in towns. The main cities represent a combination of medieval buildings, such as castles and cathedrals, and modern office buildings and homes. Denmark’s high standard of living and wide-ranging social services guarantee that the cities have no poor districts. Most people in the cities live in flats. But in the suburbs many also live in single-family houses.

 

D. Denmark’s fine beaches attract many visitors, and there are hotels and pensions in all major seaside resorts. Besides, excellent inns are to be found all over the country. Some are small and only serve local travellers, but others are adapted to the tourist and have established reputations for both international dishes and local specialities. There are also private rooms to let, usually for one night, and chalets all over Denmark.

 

E. There is a wide selection of places to go out in the evening, particularly in Copenhagen. Jazz and dance clubs in the capital city are top quality and world-famous performers appear regularly. There are numerous cafes, beer gardens and speciality beer bars. Entertainment available includes opera at the recently opened opera house in Copenhagen, ballet and theatre at a number of places in the larger cities, and live music of all kinds.

 

F. Most Danes eat four meals a day — breakfast, lunch, dinner, and a late-evening supper. Breakfast generally consists of cereal, cheese, or eggs. Dinner, which includes fish or meat, is usually the only hot meal. A traditional Danish dinner consists of roast duckling stuffed with apples, served with red cabbage and boiled potatoes. The other Danish meals consist mostly of sandwiches.

 

G. Almost all adult Danes can read and write. Danish law requires children to attend nine years of school. Primary school consists of the first seven grades, and secondary school lasts from three to five years. A five-year secondary school student can enter a university. Denmark has three universities. The University of Copenhagen is the oldest and largest. It was founded in 1479 and has about 24,000 students.

 

 

 

 

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5
Задание 6 № 233

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Education: the Way to the Top

2. From Agony to Love

3. Teaching to Learn

4. Learning That Never Stops

5. Things Worth Learning

6. The Right Word Can Bring Changes

7. What My Father Taught Me

8. The Power of Numbers

 

A. Education has the power to transform a person’s life. I am the living example of this. When I was on the streets, I thought I was not good at anything but I wrote a poem, and it got published. I went back to school to learn. I have learned the benefit of research and reading, of debate and listening. One day soon a group of fresh-faced college students will call me professor.

 

B. Language has the capacity to change the world and the way we live in it. People are often afraid to call things by their direct names, use taboos not to notice dangerous tendencies. Freedom begins with naming things. This has to happen in spite of political climates, careers being won or lost, and the fear of being criticized. After Helen Caldicott used the word ‘nuclear arms race’ an anti-nuclear movement appeared.

 

C. I never wanted to be a teacher. Yet years later, I find myself teaching high school English. I consider my job to be one of the most important aspects of my life, still I do not teach for the love of teaching. I am a teacher because I love to learn, and I have come to realize that the best way to learn is to teach.

 

D. One day my sister and I got one and the same homework. My sister finished the task in 2 minutes and went off to play. But I could not do it, so I went into my sister’s room and quickly copied her work. But there was one small problem: my father caught me. He didn’t punish me, but explained that cheating makes people feel helpless. And then I was left feeling guilty for cheating.

 

E. Lifelong learning does not mean spending all my time reading. It is equally important to get the habit of asking such questions as ‘what don’t I know about this topic, or subject?’, ‘what can I learn from this moment or person?’, and ‘what more do I need to learn?’ regardless of where I am, who I am talking to, or what I am doing.

 

F. Math has always been something that I am good at. Mathematics attracts me because of its stability. It has logic; it is dependable and never changes. There might be some additions to the area of mathematics, but once mathematics is created, it is set in stone. We would not be able to check emails or play videogames without the computer solving complex algorithms.

 

G. When my high school English teacher asked us to read Shakespeare, I thought it was boring and too difficult. I agonized over the syntax — I had never read anything like this. But now I am a Shakespeare professor, arid enjoy teaching Hamlet every semester. Each time I re-read the play, I find and learn something new for myself.

 

 

 

ТекстABCDEFG
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6
Задание 6 № 234

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Not Just Fun

2. Running For Heart and Mind

3. United By The Game

4. I Want To Be A Coach

5. Team Work in Sport and Life

6. Next Year We Win

7. Learning From Father

8. School between Practices

 

A. I believe playing sports is more than an activity to fill your day, it can teach important life lessons. When I was a child, my dad spent a lot of time teaching me how to play different sports. He told me that if I can succeed in sports, I can succeed at anything in life. He used to say, ‘It’s not about how good you become. It’s about working hard to get where you want to be.’

 

B. I like bicycles. Group rides help me to get new skills and make new friends. I try to apply the tactics of group riding to team work in the real world. In the perfect group ride, each rider takes a turn leading the pack, while the others enjoy the benefits of drafting. I think this way of working is a great method for approaching a group task anywhere.

 

C. I believe in the power of running. Running should not be a battle for your body but rather a rest for your mind. I felt this last fall, when I was running in the park. Suddenly I felt as if I could have run forever, as if I could use running as a source of therapy for my body. Running allows the body to release different types of stress and even change our understanding of life.

 

D. My father coached basketball every day of his life, and I was right there with him in the gym watching him work his magic. Basketball appears entertaining and exciting. But the path to success is not simple. My father always told me, ‘Nothing is free.’ I took this advice and ran with it. I truly believe that only practice and determination lead to success.

 

E. Baseball is so much more than a sport. One of the powers of baseball is that it brings people together. It unites fans of all ages, genders, and nationalities. No matter who you are, you can be a baseball fan. My mom and I have one unspoken rule: no matter what has been going on before, no fighting at the game.

 

F. I believe that you must always be loyal to the sport teams you support. The teams I follow in the United States generally lose many more than they win. The start of each season brings dreams of victory in baseball, basketball or football, dreams that fade away soon. But then there is always next year. It will be our year for sure.

 

G. I was determined to join the swim team. I knew I would get my strengths and learn my weaknesses there. Waking up early for 6:30 a.m. practices is what swim team is all about, as it helps us get into state. On a long school day you think about the practice in the pool after school. You want to hear the crowd cheering you, telling you that you have to do more than your best.

 

 

 

ТекстABCDEFG
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7
Задание 6 № 235

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Travel memories

2. Animal lover magazine

3. Travel to stars

4. Star dreams

5. Popular hobby

6. Family magazine

7. People and nature

8. Animals in danger

 

A. Most people who spend a holiday travelling take a camera with them and photograph anything that interests them — sights of a city, views of mountains, lakes, waterfalls, men and women, children, ruins of ancient buildings, and even birds and animals. Later looking through their albums they will remember the happy time they have had, the islands, countries and cities they have seen.

 

B. Of course, different people dream of different things. Someone wishes a calm and quiet life; others imagine their life as a never-ending adventure. The majority dream of something concrete: a villa in some warm place, an account in a Swiss bank, a splendid car... It’s interesting to know what the dreams of people who already have all this are. Celebrities, as we know, never hide their unusual hobbies, and often shock us with their extravagant behaviour.

 

C. It is Junior Baseball Magazine’s mission to provide information that enhances the youth baseball experience for the entire family. The player improves his skills and is more successful. The family enjoys the activity more and shares this precious time in their life. Junior Baseball emphasizes good sportsmanship, safety, physical fitness and wholesome family values.

 

D. The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison like industrial, nuclear and chemical waste. The Mediterranean Sea is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following it. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas. Every ten minutes one species of animal, plant or insect dies out forever.

 

E. Lots of people all over the world enjoy collecting stamps. Stamps are like little pictures. Very often they show the flowers or the trees which grow in this or that country, or they can show different kinds of transport of the country. Stamps may also have portraits of famous people on them. Some stamps show art work from the history of the country.

 

F. “Friend” is the title of my favourite magazine. It consists of 70 pages, with lots of colourful and bright pictures and provides interesting and useful information for people who love animals. The magazine includes numerous articles devoted to various topics connected with domestic animals, ways to take care of them, pet food, animal health and many other topics crucial for any animal lover. 

 

G. People are beginning to realize that environmental problems are not just somebody else’s. Many people join and support various international organizations and green parties. Human life is the most important, and polluted air, poisoned water, wastelands, noise, smoke, gas, exhaust all influence not only nature but people themselves. Everything should be done to improve ecological conditions on our planet.

 

 

 

ТекстABCDEFG
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8
Задание 6 № 236

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Perfect for a quiet holiday

2. Land of nature wonders

3. Bad for animals

4. A visit to the zoo

5. Perfect for an active holiday

6. Difficult start

7. New perspectives

8. New rules to follow

 

A. The mountains of Scotland (we call them the Highlands) are a wild and beautiful part of Europe. A golden eagle flies over the mountains. A deer walks through the silence of the forest. Salmon and trout swim in the clean, pure water of the rivers. Some say that not only fish swim in the deep water of Loch Ness. Speak to the people living by the Loch. Each person has a story of the monster, and some have photographs.

 

B. Tresco is a beautiful island with no cars, crowds or noise — just flowers, birds, long sandy beaches and the Tresco Abbey Garden. John and Wendy Pyatt welcome you to the Island Hotel, famous for delicious food, comfort and brilliant service. You will appreciate superb accommodation, free saunas and the indoor swimming pool.

 

C. The Camel and Wildlife Safari is a unique mixture of the traditional and modern. Kenya’s countryside suits the Safari purposes exceptionally well. Tourists will have a chance to explore the bush country near Samburu, to travel on a camel back or to sleep out under the stars. Modern safari vehicles are always available for those who prefer comfort.

 

D. Arrival can be the hardest part of a trip. It is late, you are road-weary, and everything is new and strange. You need an affordable place to sleep, something to eat and drink, and probably a way to get around. But in general, it’s a wonderful trip, full of wonderful and unusual places. Whether it is the first stop on a trip or the fifth city visited, every traveller feels a little overwhelmed stepping onto a new street in a new city.

 

E. No zoo has enough money to provide basic habitats or environments for all the species they keep. Most animals are put in a totally artificial environment, isolated from everything they would meet in their natural habitat. Many will agree that this isolation is harmful to the most of zoo inhabitants, it can even amount to cruelty.

 

F. A new London Zoo Project is a ten year project to secure the future for the Zoo and for many endangered animals. The plan has been devised by both animal and business experts to provide world-leading accommodation for all our animals, to more fully engage and inform people about conservation issues, to redesign certain aspects of Zoo layout.

 

G. Leave-no-trace camping is an increasingly popular approach to travel in wilderness areas. As the term suggests, the goal is for the camper to leave as little impact as possible on the place he is visiting. One of its mottos is “Take nothing but pictures. Leave nothing but footprints.” Its simplest and most fundamental rule is: pack it in, pack it out, but it goes beyond that.

 

 

 

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9
Задание 6 № 237

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. The House of Commons

2. Parliamentary Procedure

3. The House of Lords

4. Westminster

5. The System of Government

6. Parliamentary Committees

7. Whitehall

8. The Crown

 

A. Her Majesty’s Government, in spite of its name, derives its authority and power from its party representation in Parliament. Parliament is housed in the Palace of Westminster, once a home of the monarchy. Like the monarchy, Parliament is an ancient institution, dating from the middle of the thirteenth century. Parliament is the seat of British democracy, but it is perhaps valuable to remember that while the House of Lords was created in order to provide a council of the nobility for the king, the Commons were summoned originally in order to provide the king with money.

 

B. The reigning monarch is not only head of state but symbol of the unity of the nation. The monarchy is Britain’s oldest secular institution, its continuity for over a thousand years broken only once by a republic that lasted a mere eleven years (1649-60). The monarchy is hereditary, the succession passing automatically to the oldest male child, or in the absence of males to the oldest female offspring of the monarch. In law the monarch is head of the executive and of the judiciary, head of the Church of England, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

 

C. The dynamic power of Parliament lies in its lower chamber. Of its 650 members, 523 represent constituencies in England, 38 in Wales, 72 in Scotland and 17 in Northern Ireland. There are only seats in the Commons debating chamber for 370 members, but except on matters of great interest, it is unusual for all members to be present at any one time. Many MPs find themselves in other rooms of the Commons, participating in a variety of committees and meetings necessary for an effective parliamentary process.

 

D. Britain is a democracy, yet its people are not, as one might expect in a democracy, constitutionally in control of the state. The constitutional situation is an apparently contradictory one. As a result of a historical process the people of Britain are subjects of the Crown, accepting the Queen as the head of the state. Yet even the Queen is not sovereign in any substantial sense since she receives her authority from Parliament, and is subject to its direction in almost all matters. This curious situation came about as a result of a long struggle for power between the Crown and Parliament during the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries.

 

E. Her Majesty’s Government governs in the name of the Queen, and its hub, Downing Street, lies in Whitehall, a short walk from Parliament. Following a general election, the Queen invites the leader of the majority party represented in the Commons, to form a government on her behalf. Government ministers are invariably members of the House of Commons, but infrequently members of the House of Lords are appointed. All government members continue to represent “constituencies” which elected them.

 

F. Each parliamentary session begins with the “State Opening of Parliament”, a ceremonial occasion in which the Queen proceeds from Buckingham Palace to the Palace of Westminster where she delivers the Queen’s Speech from her throne in the House of Lords. Her speech is drafted by her government, and describes what the government intends to implement during the forthcoming session. Leading members of the Commons may hear the speech from the far end of the chamber, but are not allowed to enter the House of Lords.

 

G. The upper chamber of Parliament is not democratic in any sense at all. It consists of four categories of peer. The majority are hereditary peers, a total of almost 800, but of whom only about half take an active interest in the affairs of the state. A smaller number, between 350 and 400, are “life” peers – an idea introduced in 1958 to elevate to the peerage certain people who rendered political or public service to the nation. The purpose was not only to honour but also to enhance the quality of business done in the Lords.

 

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10
Задание 6 № 238

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. GLOBAL LANGUAGE

2. HOW IT ALL BEGAN

3. GREAT BORROWER

4. THE LANGUAGE OF COMPUTERS

5. ENGLISH IN OTHER LANGUAGES

6. FRENCH INFLUENCE

7. CRAZY ENGLISH

8. DO YOU SPEAK COCKNEY?

 

A. It’s strange that the differences in Britain itself are greater than those between Britain and other English-speaking countries. For a Londoner, it’s easier to understand an American than a Cockney. Cockney has a pronunciation, accent and vocabulary unlike any other dialect. Cockney speech is famous for its rhyming slang. A word is replaced by a phrase or a person’s name which rhymes with it.

 

B. Other languages absorb English words too, often giving them new forms and meanings. So many Japanese, French, Spanish and Germans mix English words with their mother tongues that the resulting hybrids are called Japlish, Franglais, Spanglish and Denglish, In Japanese, for example, there is a verb Makudonaru, to eat at McDonald’s.

 

C. Have you ever wondered why the English language has different words for animals and meat? When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, French became the official language of the court. The English would look after the animals and cook the meat, still calling the animals pig, sheep and cow. The Normans, when they saw the cooked meat arrive at their table, would use French words – pork, mutton and beef.

 

D. English is mixing with other languages around the world. It’s probably the biggest borrower. Words newly coined or in vogue in one language are very often added to English as well. There are words from 120 languages in its vocabulary, including Arabic, French, German, Greek, Italian, Russian, Spanish and Turkish. 70 per cent of the English vocabulary are loan words and only 30 per cent of the words are native.

 

E. Have you ever wondered how many people speak English? It’s around 400 million people. Geographically, English is the most wide-spread language on earth, and it’s second only to Chinese in the number of people who speak it. It’s spoken in the British Isles, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and much of Canada and South Africa. English is also a second language of another 300 million people living in more than 60 countries.

 

F. In Shakespeare’s time only a few million people spoke English. All of them lived in what is now Great Britain. Through the centuries, as a result of various historical events, English spread throughout the world. There were only 30,000 words in Old English. Modern English has the largest vocabulary in the world – more than 600,000 words.

 

G. In the English language blackboards can be green or white, and blackberries are green and then red before they are ripe. There is no egg in eggplant, neither mush nor room in mushroom, neither pine nor apple in pineapple, no ham in hamburger. Why is it that a king rules a kingdom but a queen doesn’t rule a queendom? If the plural of tooth is teeth, shouldn’t the plural of booth be beeth? And in what other language can your nose run?

 

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11
Задание 6 № 239

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. CHRISTMAS SHOPPING

2. CRIME AT CHRISTMAS

3. CHRISTMAS TRADITIONS

4. CHRISTMAS – A FAMILY CELEBRATION

5. CHRISTMAS IN RUSSIA

6. CHRISTMAS DINNER

7. CHRISTMAS WEATHER

8. NEW YEAR’S CELEBRATIONS

 

A. There are a lot of traditions connected with Christmas but perhaps the most important one is the giving of presents. Family members wrap up their gifts and leave them at the bottom of the Christmas tree to be found on Christmas morning. Children leave a long sock or stocking at the end of their beds on Christmas Eve, 24th December, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and bring them small presents, fruit and nuts.

 

B. At some time on Christmas day the family will sit down to a big turkey dinner followed by Christmas pudding or Christmas cake. As for Christmas cake, heavy and overfilling it is not to everybody’s taste. To make things worse, it takes weeks to make and when it is ready it can last until Easter, so if you don’t like it, you have to try and eat some at Christmas to avoid being haunted by it months after.

 

C. Officially Christmas and New Year celebrations run from the 24th of December to the 2nd of January. However, for many Brits the Christmas marathon starts as early as the beginning of October with the first festive adverts on TV. The idea of Christmas shopping is that you spend as much money as you can on anything you cast your eyes on, preferably something neither you nor your family or friends will ever use. An average British family spends 670 pounds or more around the Christmas period.

 

D. Long live Christmas! -say pickpockets, car thieves and burglars getting their share of Christmas shopping. Every year thousands of people get their wallets stolen in overcrowded shops and streets. Lots of lovely presents, which somebody spent so much time and money on, disappear without a trace when cars and homes are broken into. As much as 9% of people experience a burglary in December.

 

E. Who doesn’t want to have a white Christmas? Playing snowballs and making a snowman with the whole family on Christmas Day is most people’s dream (apart from the countries like Australia that celebrate Christmas in summer, on the beach). This dream is more likely to come true in northern countries like Russia, but for the British people it’s different. Although it’s not uncommon to get some snow in Scotland and northern England, the rest of Britain is normally only lucky enough to get some frost. In most cases the weather is wet and gloomy.

 

F. New year is a time for celebrating and making a new start in life. In Britain many people make New Year’s resolutions. This involves people promising themselves that they will improve their behaviour in some way, by giving up bad habits. People might decide to give up smoking, for example, or to go on a diet. These promises are often broken in the first few days of the New Year, however!

 

G. Christmas is celebrated on the 25th of December. For most families, this is the most important festival of the year. On this day many people are travelling home to be with their families. Most houses are decorated with brightly-coloured paper or holly, and there is usually a Christmas tree in the corner of the front room. Unfortunately, not all families get on well together. As it is a well-known fact, some magazines publish tips on how to cope with Christmas, such as yoga, meditation or holidays abroad.

 

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12
Задание 6 № 240

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. National language

2. Freedom of media

3. Customs and traditions

4. Public transport

5. Geography

6. Leisure and sport

7. Modern history

8. Economic outlook

 

A. Lithuania is situated on the eastern Baltic coast and borders Latvia in the north, the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation and Poland in the southwest, and Belarus in the southwest and east. The geometrical centre of Europe lies in eastern Lithuania 25km north of its capital Vilnius. The landscape varies between lowland plains and hilly uplands and has a complex network of rivers.

 

B. Lithuania has historically been the least developed of the Baltic republics, with a smaller industrial base and greater dependence on agriculture. Sugar beet, cereals, potatoes and vegetables are the main crops. Lithuania’s foreign trade has gradually changed during the 1990s, and now the European Union, not Russia, is its main trading partner.

 

C. Lithuanian is the mother tongue for 80% of the population. After the country joined the European Union in 2004 this language has become one of the EU official languages. Lithuania has a large number of dialects for such a small territory, including High Lithuanian and Low Lithuanian.

 

D. Lithuania offers different opportunities for a nice vacation. You can explore a range of large sand dunes and pine forests while hiking in the Curonian Spit National Park, take part in some action sports in Nida, a village that makes a true paradise for sailing, windsurfing, paragliding and kiting, or try out more extreme sports, such as hot-air ballooning and gliding.

 

E. Those who are interested in folklore may enjoy their stay in Lithuania in any season of the year. The Mardi Gras celebrations are held in various Lithuanian cities and small towns at the beginning of February. The Folklore Festival is held in Vilnius’ Old Town during in May. There you can see craft fairs, taste traditional dishes, join song and parties and listen to psalms.

 

F. Lithuania’s TV market is dominated by commercial channels. The radio market is similarly competitive. Lithuania’s media are free and operate independently of the state, and there are no government-owned newspapers. However, politicians do occasionally attempt to influence editorial policy.

 

G. In cities and towns there are buses and trolleybuses, which usually run from 05.00 to 23.00, but times do vary between routes. You can’t pay the fare to the driver in cash but you can buy coupons from him. Coupons can be also bought at news kiosks before boarding. Minibuses are less crowded but more expensive.

 

 

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13
Задание 6 № 241

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Expenses

2. Ways of behaviour

3. Nightlife

4. Favourite food

5. Place to stay in

6. Eating out

7. National languages

8. Great outdoors

 

A. Norway is first of all a land for those who love nature. The breathtaking fjords in the southwest of the country and Europe’s largest glacier are Norway’s most attractive places, but there are many other reasons to visit this country in the north of Europe. There are wonderful opportunities to enjoy skiing, fishing and rock-climbing. Others can take pleasure in the charm of the Norwegian countryside, with its countless valleys, high mountain lakes and unbelievable views.

 

B. Many tourists coming to Norway in the summer prefer to stay in a cottage used by northern Norwegian fishermen during the winter cod-fishing season. Equipped with all the necessary facilities, these cottages are leased to holidaymakers, providing an attractive form of accommodation. They will often be actually over the water. Catching your own fish and cooking it on the fire will add a few pleasant moments to your holiday.

 

C. Norway has a long history of fishing, although much of the high quality shellfish and other species caught off the coast are exported. However, fish remains a common dish, along with meat, potatoes and other root vegetables, although tastes have changed in recent years to involve a wider international choice, including pizzas and burgers. The most popular traditional hot snack is a form of sausage, sold at numerous outlets.

 

D. Traditionally entertainment in the country is largely home-based, but this has been changing in recent years. Most Norwegians tend to go out only on Fridays and Saturdays, the rest of the week being fairly quiet. This is in no small part due to the high prices of food and drink, and the fact that the working day starts early. And at weekends, it is normal for the Norwegians to enjoy drinks at home before leaving it as late as 11.00 p.m.

 

E. Restaurants tend to be concentrated in city centres, while in recent years the pub culture has been gradually arriving in Norway. Cities are nowadays well supplied with a wide choice of bars, many of which offer food that has a lower price compared to the restaurants. Most villages of any size have at least one cafe or restaurant where it is possible to drink and eat out.

 

F. Norwegians are generally sincere and polite, though communication doesn’t often come easy — it is usually up to you to break the ice and establish contact. They can be very direct and rarely say ‘please’, which may seem rude, but it’s due to the fact that the Norwegian language rarely uses the word. On the other hand, they say ‘thank you’ for almost everything. They also tend to address people by their first name even on many formal occasions.

 

G. Norway is an expensive country. As labour is costly here, anything that can be seen as a ‘service’ will generally be more expensive than you expect. Transport costs can also be a killer, because the country is large and distances are long. But there is one good point: Norway has a high quality of tap water. So buying bottled drinking water is usually unnecessary and this will save your budget.

 

 

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14
Задание 6 № 242

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Footballers’ diets

2. Ideal football shape

3. Length matters

4. Puree instead of pasta

5. Secret born in the USSR

6. Stress or relaxation

7. Flying fruit

8. Referee’s perspective

 

A. Good footballers must have something in their genes. Scientists have discovered a link between the length of a footballer’s ring finger and their ability as a player. They compared the ring and index fingers of top players. Players whose ring fingers were longer compared to their index fingers were more likely to be elite players. Some of the players found to have long ring fingers are Bryan Robson, Ossie Ardiles, Glenn Hoddle, Sir Stanley Matthews and Gazza.

 

B. Fitness training is absolutely necessary for a first-rate football team. Jogging up and down the stadium a few times is not enough. What footballers really need is a quick start. Footballers can get this ability to start running very quickly by using a training method called ‘plyometrics’. In the 1960s, athletes in the Soviet Union used plyometric exercises to improve their results in jumping. Step by step, the method has become very important for many sports that include sprinting and jumping.

 

C. In the past, footballers used to have a big fried breakfast — or even a roast dinner — before a football match. In the new era of professional football, the menu of modern players has been radically reformed. Arsenal manager, Arsene Wenger, is known for his scientific method of feeding his team. When he first came to the club in 1996, he at once changed the players’ dinner menus. Sugar, red meat, chips, fried foods and dairy products were out. Vegetables, fish, chicken and plenty of water were in.

 

D. French diet specialists heavily criticised the pre-match diet of the England players in Euro ‘96. Their menu of tomato soup and spaghetti was said to be more likely to produce wind than a win. Potatoes, according to French scientists, make the best meal on the day of a game. They have glucides, which give the player a lot of energy. They also include useful vitamins. According to one piece of research, a player should eat 200-300 grams of mashed potatoes, boiled for 20 minutes, exactly three hours before going to the game.

 

E. Physics can explain a football wonder — the banana kick. This happens when a ball suddenly changes its direction at the end of its flight. At a certain speed, the air flowing over a flying ball becomes ‘turbulent’. This means that the air moves irregularly over the ball. As the ball slows down, the air becomes ‘smooth’ again. This slowdown makes the ball turn dramatically, creating the wonderful ‘banana’ kicks that the spectators like so much.

 

F. These days, footballs are made in a design based on the ‘Buckminster Ball’. The American architect Richard Buckminster Fuller came up with the design when he was trying to find a way for constructing buildings using a minimum of materials. The ball is a series of geometrical figures, which can be fitted together to make a round body. The modern football is in fact a Buckminster Ball consisting of 32 pieces. When they are joined together and filled with air they make a perfect sphere. 

 

G. Research has shown that watching the World Cup is good for our health even if your team goes out on penalties. The scientists suggest that a common interest and a nationalistic pride are very important. The competition makes people less concentrated on their own problems. They are also more patient and can cope with crises much easier. Watching football can, however, also be disappointing, especially when it comes to the decisions of referees and officials. Besides, watching penalties can be very nervous.

 

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15
Задание 6 № 243

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Training the mind

2. Welsh roots

3. Quick reaction

4. Chemistry in tennis

5. Too fast

6. Losing control

7. Unexpected prize

8. Ads with wings

 

A. By now Wimbledon has become a popular national festival, together with Ascot and the Cup Final. Many people in Britain don’t know that tennis was first played in Wales. It was there, in 1873, that Major Walter Wingfield played a game with the recently invented rubber balls and enjoyed it so much, that he decided to develop the standards of the game. He published the first book of tennis rules later that year. The first Wimbledon championship was held a few years later in 1877 and the British Lawn Tennis Association formed in 1888.

 

B. Good mental preparation is necessary for professional tennis players. In a long match they can be on the court for several hours with nobody to talk to. There can be hundreds of stops from the crowd, their opponent and, especially at Wimbledon, the rain. Players need to practice methods for improving their concentration and for motivating themselves when the game is going against them. They are often taught to imagine some situations, such as a tense tie-break. Then they imagine what to do with it.

 

C. Many players find it impossible to stay calm in the stressful situation of a long tennis match and let their temper out. John McEnroe was famous for his quarrels with referees. Several players have been given warnings for throwing the racket or swearing. Some players lose matches they could easily win because their mind lets them down. Pat Rafter said that he couldn’t breathe in his 2000 Wimbledon final. The stress of being near the victory can be too much for a person.

 

D. The power of today’s tennis game is only partly created by the athletes themselves. Much of it comes from their rackets. New designs mean players can hit the ball with more speed and accuracy than ever before. It started in the 1970s when the traditional wooden racket was replaced with metal. Since then different materials have been used. Graphite has made the biggest influence. Now the graphite can be mixed with materials such as boron and titanium to produce even stronger, and lighter, rackets.

 

E. Speed isn’t always a good thing. Many fans are complaining that the speed of the game is making tennis boring to watch. After two years of testing, a new ball has now been invented which could slow down tennis and make it more exciting to watch. The ball is put together in exactly the same way as the one used now, but is 6% larger in diameter. The bigger ball gives the receiver 10% more reaction time in which to return the serve. So the number of aces — serves in a match that the receiver fails to return — will be far fewer.

 

F. When Irishman John Boland travelled to Athens for the first modern Olympic Games in 1896, he had no idea he would return home with the gold medal in tennis. But then, he had no idea he would compete either — he went to watch the competion. In comparison, today’s Olympic tennis players include some of the best athletes in the world. They are used to five-star hotels and hundreds of thousands of dollars, but at the Olympic Games they will stay in the Olympic Village and compete for nothing but a gold medal.

 

G. The Wimbledon tennis tournament is famous for pigeons that sometimes come flying on to Centre Court and stop the game. So, producers of a video tennis game designed for PlayStation2 decided to use specially trained homing pigeons, decorated with the game’s logo. Twenty birds will be spray-painted with the Virtual Tennis logo and trained to fly in and out of the home of British tennis during the matches of the Wimbledon championship. The advertising pigeons will go straight for the fans and show their logos to them.

 

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16
Задание 6 № 244

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Controlling skies

2. Lack of safety

3. Bicycle is faster

4. Office at home

5. Blocked roads

6. Paid roads

7. Improving railways

8. Buses instead of cars

 

A. The world’s first public passenger railway was built in Great Britain in 1826 and ran between the industrial north-eastern towns of Stockton and Darlington. After 180 years’ experience the British say that their trains still don’t seem to run efficiently or even safely. On average, about 500 accidents with broken rail tracks happen in the country every year.

 

B. The British government is promising to give £33.5 billion to modernise the railways before 2010. Another £30 billion is to come from the private sector. The main target is to increase safety and speed. For example, new London-to-Scotland high-speed trains significantly reduce journey times and in 2004 a warning system was installed throughout the country.

 

C. Statistics show that only 12% of all journeys made in Britain are by public transport. The remaining 88% are made by car. Every year British people spend about two weeks travelling to and from work including nine days in their own cars. But anyone will say this isn’t a quick and easy way to travel. In fact, a journey from London to Manchester frequently takes seven hours. A cyclist could get there quicker.

 

D. Every year there are about half a million traffic jams in Britain. That is nearly 10,000 a week. There are hundreds of big traffic jams every day. According to the forecast, the number of jams will grow by 20 per cent over the next ten years. Nearly a quarter British people find themselves in a jam every day and 55 per cent at least once a week.

 

E. Nowadays many British people take their children to school by car. Twenty years ago, nearly one in three primary school children made their own way to school. Now only one child in nine makes their own way. During the school year at 08:50 a. m. one car in five on the roads in any British town is taking children to school. The solution could be special school buses widely used in the USA.

 

F. Many scientists hope that new technologies allowing more people to work at home may help with traffic problems. Fewer people will work from 9 to 5 and travel to and from work during the rush hour. But only 15% of people now want to spend more time working at home. The workplace is, for many people, a place to meet other people and to talk to them, so they would miss it if they worked from home. 

 

G. In 1903, the Wright brothers made the first aeroplane flight. It only lasted 12 seconds but changed the world forever. A century later, air travel is no longer a miracle, it is part of everyday life. One billion air passengers now fly every year — that’s equivalent to a sixth of the world’s population. To make sure everything runs smoothly, there are special air traffic control centres in each country which watch every aeroplane.

 

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17
Задание 6 № 245

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Useful Invention

2. US Younger Generation

3. Modern Branch of Industry

4. Historical Separation

5. Verbal Misunderstanding

6. Britain, the World Empire

7. All in One

8. Old Enough

 

A. For 150 years America was a British colony. At that time British and American English were almost exactly the same. When America won the War of Independence in 1776, it became a free country. The USA was quickly growing richer, and millions of Europeans came to settle here. They brought new words and expressions to the language. As a result, English in America began to develop in its own way and today, there are certain differences in pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and spelling between American and British English.

 

B. Typical American teenagers are in fact very ordinary. They think their teachers make them work too hard, they love their parents but are sure they don’t understand anything, and their friendships are the most important things in their lives. Some of them do have a lot of money to spend, but usually they have earned it themselves. Most young people take jobs while they are in school. They work at movie theatres, fast-food restaurants, gas stations, and stores to pay for their clothes and entertainment. Maybe this is what makes them so independent from their parents at such a young age?

 

C. Is it possible to have one device with the functions of a TV-set, a PC and the Internet? With the advent of Internet TV it has become a reality. Imagine watching a film on TV and getting information on the actors in the film at the same time! To enter web-addresses and write e-mails you use a remote control and an on-screen keyboard or an optional wireless keyboard. By clicking a button, you can also read adverts, ‘chat’ with a friend, plan your holiday and play your favourite video games. And in the future you’ll be able to change the plot of the film you are watching!

 

D. When do you stop being a child and become an adult? There are lots of laws about the age when you can start doing things. In Britain, for example, you can get married at 16, but you cannot get a tattoo until you are 18. In most American states you can have a driving licence at 17, but you cannot drink until you are 21. In Russia you can be put to prison when you are 16, but you cannot vote until you are 18. In fact, most European countries and the US have the same age for voting: 18. Many people, however, think that this is unfair. They would like to vote at an earlier age.

 

E. Blue jeans were a by-product of the Gold Rush. The man who invented jeans, Levi Strauss, emigrated from Germany to San Francisco in 1850. Levi was 20 years old, and he decided to sell clothes to the miners who were in California in search of gold. When he was told that durable trousers were the most needed item of clothing, Levi began making jeans of heavy tent canvas. Levi’s jeans were an immediate success. Soon he switched from canvas to a cotton fabric which came from Nimes, a city in France. The miners called it ‘denim’ and bought a lot of trousers from Strauss.

 

F. Some fifty years ago people hadn’t even heard of computers, and today we cannot imagine our life without them. Computer technology is now the fastest-growing industry in the world. The first computer was the size of a minibus and weighed a ton. Today, its job can be done by a chip the size of a pinhead. And the revolution is still going on. Very soon we’ll have computers that we’ll wear on our wrists or even in our glasses and ear-rings. Such wearable computers are now being developed in the USA.

 

G. Some American words are simply unknown on the other side of the Atlantic, and vice versa. But a lot of words exist in both variants, and these can cause trouble. British visitors to America are often surprised at the different meanings that familiar words have acquired there. If an Englishman asks in an American store for a vest, he will be offered a waistcoat. If he wants to buy a handbag for his wife, he should ask for a purse, and if she wants to buy a pair of tights, she should ask for pantyhose: tights in America are what ballet dancers wear.

 

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18
Задание 6 № 246

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Lucky escape

2. Long journey

3. Good way to meet

4. Growing in popularity

5. Ordering in

6. Fast food is unhealthy

7. A new way to buy

8. Too much choice

 

A. When you are tired and don’t want to cook, just pick up the phone. Restaurants are expensive and take some time and effort to reach if you don’t live in the centre of town. Ordering food for home delivery is cheap and these days there is a huge choice. Indian and Chinese are the most popular but I prefer to get in a pizza.

 

B. A school group on a skiing holiday to Italy narrowly avoided disaster when their coach left the road and fell eighty meters into a valley. Trees slowed down the falling coach and because of the fresh new snow the vehicle landed quite softly. Amazingly no one was injured.

 

C. A teenager from London is making news around the world. On his recent holiday in Australia he set off without his mobile phone. Experts are amazed that he is still alive after walking for fourteen days, surviving extreme temperatures and living off the land. However, a lot of Australians are unhappy with him. The rescue cost is estimated at more than 100,000 dollars.

 

D. You can buy almost anything, new or second hand, on the internet. On one site you can offer the price you want to pay for something. Whoever offers the highest price can buy that item. Recently I made the highest offer for a nearly new pair of skis. However, I only paid half of what they would have cost new in a shop.

 

E. Making new friends on the internet makes so much sense. You can see someone’s photo and read if they share your interests and opinions. The important thing is you can spend time getting to know people who are attractive to you and looking for the same things in life that you are. Still, for personal safety, most sites recommend that in person you meet initially in a public place like a cafe or a gallery.

 

F. I like eating out but some restaurants have huge menus. And usually every item sounds mouth watering. The trouble is I like to read about everything on offer and sometimes waiters wait for me rather than on me! The other issue is how they can offer so much whilst maintaining quality? I’d rather take one of five options knowing that each one was brilliant.

 

G. “Facebook” is a social networking website that has 250 million members and despite lots of criticism by employers, governments and media, continues to attract thousands of new users daily. In spite of claims of concerns about privacy, safety and wasting time at work, “Facebook” is one of the most rapidly establishing phenomena of recent years.

 

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19
Задание 6 № 247

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. For parents and friends

2. Radiation threat

3. Threat for kids

4. Feeling of safety

5. Mobile future

6. Mobile booking office

7. New language

8. SMS to premier

 

A. Mobile phones use ‘radio waves’ to send signals. Since the 1920s, scientists have known that radio waves can cause the heating of the skin and influence the nervous system. But mobile phones don’t produce many radio waves. Still children should be especially careful about mobile phone use because their nervous system may be hurt. Children should only use mobiles for short calls.

 

B. It is known that the strength of radio wave radiation decreases with distance. It suggests that hands-free sets may be effective in avoiding all the dangers of mobile phones. But another study described an increase in radiation that reached the user of a hands-free set. It says that the cable of the hands-free set acted as an antenna, directing more radio waves into the user’s ear.

 

C. Train passengers will soon be able to buy tickets on their mobile phone. Chiltern Railways plans to sell tickets through mobile phones. The new technology sends a code to a mobile phone in a text message, which passengers can then scan at the station ticket barrier. It’s hoped the method will make buying tickets easier for passengers and help fight against queues at stations.

 

D. Many parents now use mobiles to control their children’s behaviour. It gives parents peace of mind and makes young people feel protected. Parents say that young people are safer with mobiles than without them. But, while parents said they liked to call their children on the mobile to actually hear their voice, young people liked to send text messages to parents.

 

E. A research showed that those young people who have a mobile feel more independent and often use it to plan meetings both relatives and peers. In particular, young people often use mobiles to ask their parents if they can come home later. The study showed that girls more often text parents to let them know they were safe than boys. They also use text messaging for socializing purposes.

 

F. It is not only parents who want to connect with young people through mobile technologies. Nowadays politicians and different organizations look for ways to use text messaging as a channel for communication with the young. In late 2004, the UK government offered people the opportunity to ‘text Tony’. People were invited to send a text question to the prime minister to be answered as part of a ‘mobile chat’.

 

G. The popularity of text messages led to the development of a special system of words or ‘chat speak’. For example, acronyms, that are words made from the first letters of other words, are often used both in online chatrooms and text messages sent to your mobile phone. This ‘chat speak’ is very popular with children who are fast at texting. Parents might be interested to know that ‘PAW’ means ‘parents are watching’!

 

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20
Задание 6 № 248

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A taste of everything

2. Shop till you drop

3. City’s tourist attractions

4. Ancient traditions live on

5. Activities for the adventurous and hardy

6. On the crossroads of religions

7. For the body, mind and soul

8. From the high peaks to the deep seas

 

A. Today Jakarta has much to offer, ranging from museums, art and antique markets, first class shopping to accommodations and a wide variety of cultural activities. Jakarta’s most famous landmark, the National Monument or Monas is a 137m obelisk topped with a flame sculpture coated with 35 kg of gold. Among other places one can mention the National museum that holds an extensive collection of ethnographic artifacts and relics, the Maritime Museum that exhibits Indonesia’s seafaring traditions, including models of sea going vessels.

 

B. Sumatra is a paradise for nature lovers, its national parks are the largest in the world, home to a variety of monkeys, tigers and elephants. Facing the open sea, the western coastline of Sumatra and the waters surrounding Nias Island have big waves that make them one of the best surfer’s beaches in Indonesia. There are beautiful coral reefs that are ideal for diving. For those who prefer night dives, the waters of Riau Archipelago offer a rewarding experience with marine scavengers of the dark waters.

 

C. Various establishments offer professional pampering service with floral baths, body scrubs, aromatic oils, massages and meditation; rituals and treatments that use spices and aromatic herbs to promote physical and mental wellness. Various spa hotels are extremely popular. Indonesians believe that when treating the body you cure the mind.

 

D. Jakarta has a distinctly cosmopolitan flavor. Tantalize your taste buds with a gastronomic spree around the city’s many eateries. Like French gourmet dining, exotic Asian cuisine, American fast food, stylish cafes, restaurants all compete to find a way into your heart through your stomach. The taste of Indonesia’s many cultures can be found in almost any corner of the city: hot and spicy food from West Sumatra, sweet tastes of Dental Java, the tangy fish dishes of North Sulawesi.

 

E. In the face of constant exposure to modernization and foreign influences, the native people still faithfully cling to their culture and rituals. The pre-Hindu Bali Aga tribe still maintains their own traditions of architecture, pagan religion, dance and music, such as unique rituals of dances and gladiator-like battles between youths. On the island of Siberut native tribes have retained their Neolithic hunter-gathering culture.

 

F. Whether you are a serious spender or half hearted shopper, there is sure to be something for everybody in Jakarta. Catering to diverse tastes and pockets, the wide variety of things you can buy in Jakarta is mind boggling from the best of local handicrafts to haute couture labels. Modern super and hyper markets, multi-level shopping centers, retail and specialty shops, sell quality goods at a competitive price. Sidewalk bargains range from tropical blooms of vivid colors and scents in attractive bouquets to luscious fruits of the seasons.

 

G. The land’s long and rich history can’t be separated from the influence of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. There is one of the oldest Hindu temples in Java, the majestic Buddhist ‘monastery on the hill’, Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world. About 17 km away from this monastery is a 9th century temple complex built by the Sanjaya dynasty. Prambanan complex is dedicated to the Hindu trinity: Ciwa, Vishnu and Brahma. The spread of Islam also left interesting monuments such as the 15th century Minaret Mosque in Kudus.

 

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21
Задание 6 № 249

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Party dessert

2. Outdoor game

3. Taking care of a pet

4. Collecting things

5. Giving a party

6. Party animals

7. Fun on the way

8. Party game

 

A. Ask your parents for permission to have a party. Decide what kind of party you want and whether it will be held indoors or outdoors. Send written invitations to your friends. Tell them what kind of party you are having, at what time, where, and whether or not the guests should wear costumes. Make a list of games you would like to play. Ask your mother to help you prepare refreshments. Ice cream, cake, cookies, and lemonade are good for any party.

 

B. This activity makes everybody laugh. Have the guests sit around the room. Choose one person to be a pussycat. The pussy must go over to a guest and do his/her best to make the guest laugh. He/she can make funny meows and walk around like a cat. The pussy goes from one guest to another until someone laughs. The first one to laugh becomes the new pussy.

 

C. It’s easy to make a cake from a cake mix that you get from the grocery store. You usually add only water or milk. Cake mixes come in many flavours, such as chocolate, lemon, banana, vanilla and others. When you make a cake from a mix, always follow the directions on the package carefully. Then you can be sure that your cake will turn out right and your guests will enjoy it. Many mixes have a small envelope of powdered frosting hidden inside the flour.

 

D. As you ride on a bus with your friends, get someone to start singing. Everyone joins in. At the first crossroad, another person starts a different song, and everyone joins in. Keep changing songs at every crossroad.

 

E. Looking after cats is easy. They wash themselves every day and eat almost any food. Cats like to drink milk and cream. But they need to be fed on fish, beef, liver, and other kinds of meat. They need a clean, dry bed at night. You can use a basket or a cardboard box for your cat’s bed. Cats like to play with a rubber ball or chase a string.

 

F. You can have a whole army of toy soldiers made of tin, wood or plastic. Some may be dressed in fancy uniforms, some may be sitting on horses. Others may be ready for battle, carrying guns and shoulder packs. You can have soldiers from other countries, or only Civil War soldiers or only modern soldiers. If you get two soldiers that are alike, trade your extra soldier with another toy soldier lover.

 

G. Even animals get involved in elections. The donkey and elephant have been political symbols in the USA for more than 100 years. Why? In 1828, Democrat Andrew Jackson ran for president. Critics said he was stubborn as a donkey. The donkey has been the symbol

of the Democratic Party ever since. In the 1870s, newspaper cartoonists began using the elephant to stand for the Republican Party.

 

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22
Задание 6 № 638

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Celebrations

2. Food

3. Travelling

4. Geography

5. Animal facts

6. Weather

 

A. Russia consists of several continental zones. For example, in the north winters are long and harsh, in some places there is lots of snow fall and temperatures fall below −40 degrees Celsius. These winters are normal, not only in the northern regions of the country but evenin the Far East. Summers in these areas don’t even see three warm months out of the year.

 

B. Choose the incredible New Year tours to cold Lapland, which are the perfect combination of comfort and adventure. They are ideal for those who may be new to husky sledding orwinter holidays. You will enjoy the beauty of Laplandas you drive your own dog sled team through landscapes including huge mountains, mysterious forests, deserted tundra andfrozen lakes.

 

C. You may not know this, but Finlandhas a very interesting diversity of local dishes. Fish and meat are important ingredients in some areas, and oats, berries, and milk are common in other regions. An iconic Finnish dish visitors should try, especially in the summer, is “grillimakkara”, which are large grilled sausages eaten with mustard. They are delicious.

 

D. The New Year is one of the most important holidays on the Russian calendar. New Year in Russia is a time for being together with family and friends, for gift giving, decorating theNew Year tree, and watching and setting off fireworks. Midnight is, by tradition, marked bylistening to the Russian Federation President’s greeting and Kremlin bells chime.

 

E. The Siberian Husky is a beautiful dog with a thick coat that comes in a multitude of coloursand markings. Their blue or multi-coloured eyes add to the appeal of this breed, whichoriginated in Siberia. It is easy to see why many people are enchanted by the Husky, but beaware that this athletic, intelligent dog can be independent and challenging for first-time dog owners.

 

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23
Задание 6 № 658

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Celebrations

2. Food

3. Travel guide

4. Geography

5. Advice

6. History of fashion

 

A. As the world’s biggest country, everything about Russia seems larger than life. The country covers more than one eighth of the Earth’s inhabited land area and spans nine time zones — creating a diverse range of environments, people, and culture. Russia also has the world’s largest reserves of mineral and energy resources and its lakes contain about one quarter ofthe world’s fresh water.

 

B. Levi is one of the most popular ski resorts in Finland, which provides great facilities for an active holiday in winter. The winter season is the best time to enjoy the frosty sceneriesbecause snow is almost always guaranteed. Don’t also forget the many events that are organized in Levi! The biggest winter event, the Alpine Skiing World Cup, is famous for itsinternational atmosphere.

 

C. Jeans, invented by Jacob Davis and Levi Strauss in 1873, were working clothes at first. Theywere made from durable materials and could last long. Men’s jeans had the zipper down thefront, while women’s jeans had the zipper onthe left side and both were designed to fit loosely and in form of overalls. Withtime jeans were changing looks but never got out of style.

 

D. Bread cheese is a typical dessert from Northern Finland. Made out of cow milk, bread cheese has a very unique texture. In the old days, this dish was so appreciated thatit was given as a salary to people working in the fields during the summer harvest. Now this dessert is served with sour berries, and it goes really well with coffee. It is a must try for alldessert fans!

 

E. In Russia, March is the time for the Maslenitsa Festival. This festival celebrates the end of the cold and the start of warmth,of hope, and of growth. It is considered one of the mosttraditional holidays of the year, so people, especially children, like to wear traditionalcostumes. Usually it is a dress which contains many layers. The most traditional colour isred.

 

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24
Задание 6 № 678

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Free time

2. Food

3. Advice

4. Sightseeing

5. Animal facts

6. Weather

 

A. Russian summers are warm, but cities such as Moscow (and even those as far east as Tomsk), can experience intense heat waves that drive residents out of doors, and in somecases, out of town. High humidity makes the summers feel even hotter. Brief showers occur unexpectedly; it’s good to carry a small travel umbrella with you even on the sunniest days.

 

B. Fish is a major ingredient in the Finnish cuisine. The large amount of lakes and rivers provide interesting opportunities to catch your own delicious dinner and prepare it on openfire. There is one dish Finns particularly love to prepare when spending time in their summercottages: the smoked whitefish. Whitefish can be caught in lakes, rivers and the Baltic Sea.

 

C. When you’re sightseeing or touring in the summer, be sure to remember to wear sunblock.Getting sunburned early in your trip will make the rest of your visit less pleasant. Don’t forget to protect your ears, the back of your knees, face, and other areas of exposed skin with a good-quality sunscreen that will last throughout the day. Be sure that your clothing is breathable.

 

D. Russians prefer escaping from the noisy city on the weekends or for a vacation to enjoy their summer cottage, or dacha. Dachas are located on the outskirts of cities and towns. SomeRussians maintain beautiful gardens there, but the intention of the dacha is to provide a place away from the heat and noise of the city where families can relax and commune with nature.

 

E. Some sharks seem to eat all the time. For example, the Great White Shark is always on thehunt: in a year it eats 11 tons of food! To compare, an average person eats half a ton of foodper year. Most sharks eat a meal every couple of days. If necessary, though, they can go for a few weeks without eating. Like people, sharks can store extra energy as fat, for use laterwhen food is limited.

 

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25
Задание 6 № 698

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Animal facts

2. Geography

3. Culture

4. Food

5. Weather

6. History

 

A. Most of Russia has a continental climate, with long, cold winters and brief summers. There is a wide range of summer and winter temperatures. A record low temperature of −71°C was registered in 1974 at the northeast Siberian village of Oymyakon, which is the lowesttemperature ever recorded anywhere in the world for an inhabited region.

 

B. We usually don’t think about ice too much, unless there’s none in the freezer and all we have to drink is a warm can of Coke. Before the invention of artificial refrigeration in theearly 1900s, ice was the only way to keep things cool and food from spoiling. While therewere ice-making machines in use in the mid- to late-1800’s, they were mostly for

commercial use.

 

C. Traditionally, Russian clothing had two main colours — the natural colour of the material — white, and red. «Red» is the same word that was used in the old days to call everythingbeautiful. That is, red elements in clothing became beautiful elements. Interaction withnature led to the appearance of very interesting new colours in Russian clothing: yellow,gold, blue and many others.

 

D. Polar bears live along shores and on sea ice in the icy cold Arctic. When sea ice forms over the ocean in cold weather, many polar bears head out onto the ice to hunt seals. Male polar bears may grow 10 feet tall and weigh over 1400 pounds. Females reach seven feet and weigh more than 650 pounds. In the wild polar bears live up to age 25.

 

E. Stroganina is a raw frozen fish delicacy from Yakutia, in northern Russia. It is a winter dish, consisting of long, thin slices of frozen Arctic river fish such as whitefishe, white salmon orsturgeon. It is sometimes decorated withwild red berries and greens. Some of the best stroganina is made of freshly caught fish, frozen once. The taste, according to Yakutians, issoft, fresh and frosty.

 

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Рубрика

26
Задание 6 № 718

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Weather

2. Advice

3. Famous people

4. Hobbies

5. Geography

6. History

 

A. There are a few reasons why one should go to Russiaduring the winter: it’s easier to get tickets to the top ballets and operas, and there are no crowds at other tourist attractions.Those visiting in winter should take along their warmest clothes: It’s bitterly cold (Moscowis as far north as southern Alaska) and quite dry. We recommend a long warm coat –the best you can afford.

 

B. Jamie Oliver is a genius in the world of food. He is one of the world’s best-loved television personalities. Jamie has inspired millions of people to spend more time enjoying being in thekitchen — and even start growing their own food! His programs have now been broadcast in over 50 countries, delivering delicious Jamie Oliver recipes to his fans.

 

C. London is famous for one of the mildest climates in the UK. However, Londoners are used to carrying both an umbrella and sunglasses to be prepared for any situation! The number ofrainy days there is fairly consistent throughout the year, with between 11 and 15 rainy days every month. Overall rainfall is highest in November and August and is lowest in March andApril.

 

D. One of the best things about cooking is that there are lots of different things you can do.There are so many different areas you can go into. If you want, you can take up baking and cake decorating. You can try your hand at creating dishes from specific countries; there areso many national cuisines. One thing’s for certain; you won’t get bored quickly.

 

E. Russians have always eaten vegetables, such as turnips, cabbage, radish, and cucumbers.Since the 18th century, the potato began to play an ever more important role as one of the most loved ingredients in Russian dishes. At the beginning of the 19th century, Russian cooks started serving food with sauces in the manner that French cuisine had long beenfamous for.

 

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Рубрика

27
Задание 6 № 738

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Jobs

2. Food

3. Transport

4. Free time

5. Education

6. History

 

A. A full course of study at the Russian school takes 11 years. It aims to develop the abilities that will allow a student to adapt to life in society as well as to choose their futureprofession. Every school teaches academic subjects such as literature, the Russian language, history, maths and sciences. In addition, there are specialized schools concentrating on specific subjects.

 

B. Many young people all over the world want to be flight attendants. This career path has a huge amount of benefits. For example, flight attendants are able to fly around the world,explore new places and get to meet new cultures. This profession broadens your horizonsand improves your communicating skills. Despite some drawbacks, the advantages outweigheverything.

 

C. The first recorded use of standardized dress in education was in England in 1222. However, the origin of the modern school uniform can be traced to the 16th century England, when the children attending the Christ’s Hospital boarding school wore blue cloaks along with yellow stockings. In later centuries, school uniforms became associated with the upper class.

 

D. It is easy to come to Russia. You can fly to Moscow and St. Petersburg from most major international airports. However, if there isn’t a direct flight to other Russian cities from your closest airport, you can usually take a connecting flight. There are a lot of modern andcomfortable airports in Russia. Most airlines serve a nice dinner to make your flightenjoyable.

 

E. Many airlines offer food to their passengers depending upon the class of travel. Food may beserved on one tray or in multiple courses with no tray. Often the dishes are reflective of the culture of the country the airline is based in. Anairline dinner typically includes meat (most commonly chicken or beef), fish or pasta, a salad or a vegetable, and a dessert.

 

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Рубрика

28
Задание 6 № 758

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Fashion

2. Animal facts

3. Hobbies

4. Geography

5. Food

6. Famous people

 

A. The most outstanding figure in the Russian education of the eighteenth century was MikhailLomonosov (1711–1765), the first Russian scientist and scholar of worldwide significance.He was also a poet, philologist, artist, and historian. He initiated numerous scientific,technical, and cultural innovations and devoted great efforts to the development of theRussian Academy of Sciences.

 

B. Cooking is simply fun. It’s fun to do on your own or as a family. Get your children in thekitchen cooking with you; it’s a wonderful way to bond. Whether you bake a cake, make asimple milkshake, or arrange a fruit salad, remember that you are creating lasting memories,all while adopting healthy eating habits in your family. It’s a perfect activity to pick up!

 

C. Giant pandas are bears that are native to China, where they are considered a national treasure. The only remaining giant panda habitat is on the mountainous edge of west China, the so-called «home of Giant Pandas». They live in bamboo foreston humid and relatively high mountains. There are over 50 nature reserves in Chinato protect Giant pandas’ living habitat.

 

D. Throughout the years the airline uniforms have changed a lot. Nowadays there is a variety ofdifferent styles or even traditional suits for stewards and stewardesses. Some of the airlines dress their flight attendants with a really stylish and glamorous outfit — many famous designers have created models for different airlines. It is important to make uniforms that areattractive.

 

E. Krasnoyarsk is a large scientific and cultural centre of Eastern Siberia, besides it is thelargest Siberian port on the Yenisei River. The city was founded in 1628 by Russian explorers. The variety and beauty of the Krasnoyarsk Region are striking — high mountains and deep canyons, the boundless and thick taiga where one can see ermines, polar foxes,deer and bears.

 

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Рубрика

29
Задание 6 № 778

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Literature

2. Historical facts

3. Outstanding people

4. Good manners

5. Souvenirs

6. Places to stay

 

A. Lapta, a traditional Russian sports game, is over four centuries old. Balls and bats datingback to the 14th century have been found among the ruins of Novgorod the Great. In the 18th century lapta was an important activity for physically preparing the soldiers of Peter the Great’s army. Later the game became a major pastime. Today lapta is not very popular.

 

B. Apologies are the way to build good friendships and relationships. When you say «I’msorry» (and really mean it), it’s because you probably feel bad that something you did or said hurt another person. Saying you’re sorry is morethan just words. You’re also saying that you respect the other person and you care about his or her feelings. Apologizing shows youhave empathy.

 

C. The Russian doll, or matryoshka, to use the Russian name, is one of the most recognizablesymbols of Russia. It as an example of the nation’s ancient traditions of woodworking and decorative handicrafts. There has always been a demand for the matryoshka, both as achildren’s toy and as a gift, and the doll has always been a symbol of the family.

 

D. Anna Lawrence is a fantastic storyteller and the truth behind the character’s family creates amystery for the reader. The book reflects the social problems of the city where the action takes place. But what really makes the author’s style special is her skill of describing thecharacters; they are real humans in search of their identity and place in the world.

 

E. The Stolby nature reserve is one of the most popular tourism destinations in Siberia. We recommend booking a nice cottage when you go there. There are separate small cottages for six and eight people, and a hostel. The cottages area is called ‘the village’ and is a bit of a hike from the reserve’s main reception buildings but there is a car service for when you firstarrive with your luggage.

 

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Рубрика

30
Задание 6 № 798

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Sport

2. Literature

3. Travel industry

4. Shops

5. Transport

6. Hobbies

 

A. Ecotourism is becoming more and more popular in Russia. The cultural and environmental heritage of the country is so rich and various, that Russiacan be called one of the most promising countries for the development of the ecotourism. The ecological tours give apossibility to discover the country, which could seem familiar. There is a lot to see in each region of Russia.

 

B. So iconic is this travel bookshop it even gets a mention in Arthur Conan Doyle’s «Hound of the Baskervilles». Opened in 1901, it’s one of the largest specialist travel bookshops in theworld and an essential destination for explorers, backpackers and map fanatics. There arethree floors stacked high with travel writing, guides, maps and gifts and also regular eventsfrom the great and good of exploration and travel writing.

 

C. Lapta is a traditional Russian game, which is more than 400 years old. Two teams with aminimum of three players each are needed to play the game. A rubber ball (or tennis ball)and bats are used. A traditional lapta bat has a spade-like shape. But today round ones are also used, similar to baseball bats. The field is around 30-40 yards wide and 40–55 yardslong.

 

D. Set up by Edward Stanford in 1853, the Stanfords flagship bookstore has been situated in a grand old building in London since 1901. The customers can find a great variety of travel guides, maps, gifts and more spread over three floors. Stanfords claims to be the world’slargest specialist travel bookstore. There’s also a cafe located in the store that serves cakes,pastries and hot drinks.

 

E. Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be thegreatest Russian poet. In his poems and plays he created a style of storytelling — mixing drama, romance, and satire — associated with Russian style ever since and greatlyinfluencing later Russian writers. Pushkin published his first poem at the age of fifteen.

 

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Рубрика

31
Задание 6 № 818

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Places to stay

2. Culture

3. Cities to visit

4. Hobbies

5. Health

6. Souvenirs

 

A. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky is on the Kamchatka peninsula in the far east of Russia. Ecotourism in this region is a new trend, with various activities on offer from breathtakingmountain and volcano hikes, sailing and kayaking to fishing and hunting trips. The town isalso a gastronomy destination: Kamchatka crabs and other seafood are known delicacies.

 

B. Experts recommend that teens get 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day. Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind.It makes the body produce endorphins, chemicals that can help a person to feel more peaceful and happy. Exercise canalso help some people sleep better. Moreover, physical activity reduces a person’s risk of developing certain diseases.

 

C. It’s hard to put together the top gifts to buy in Londonbecause there are just so many great things to shop for, some in unexpected places. Some of the best London gifts are items with the pictures of the sights, such as tea mugs, T-shirts and magnets. You can find nice handmade items in Convent Garden. They will remind you of your trip to London.

 

D. The Lagoon Ranch resort is on the western bank of the Baikal, in the area called the SmallSea, and offers several types of accommodation: from the most affordable two-person summer houses to double rooms and separate cabins. There are stables and a horse-riding arena, sports grounds, Russian sauna and Baikal tour guide services available.

 

E. Through fishing you can learn many things that will also help you in other areas of your life.Fishing can really challenge you, and it really helps to build up patience and persistence,skills which you can use in different areas of life. A huge partof fishing is how you handle not catching any fish or even losing a potential catch. This is a big lesson that we all learnwhen fishing.

 

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32
Задание 6 № 838

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Nature

2. Health

3. Weather

4. Politics

5. Architecture

6. Sightseeing

 

A. Kuskovo is first mentioned in documents dating from the beginning of the sixteenth century.It was a small boyar estate only about seven kilometers from Moscow. The land was not good for cultivation, and was thus of little economic significance. The estate was however an ideal hunting ground. In 1715 the Kuskovo estate was bought by Count BorisSheremetev.

 

B. Amazingly, there are an estimated 1,000 spiders for every square meter. There are approximately 25 million tons of spiders in the world and 45,000 different species of them.So they’re the top predator because that’s a lot of spiders eating a lot of food! Humans, by comparison, consume about 400 million tons of meat and fish, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

 

C. There was snow on the ground recently in 49 of the 50 states! Can anyone guess which statedidn’t have it? It was Florida. Even Hawaii had seven inches of snow atop an inactive volcano called Mauna Kea! Even though this is really rare, it has happened before.Meteorologists say it happened on February 10, 2010. That time it was Hawaii that didn’t have snow.

 

D. The citizens of France voted for a new leader over the weekend and the winner is… Emmanuel Macron. He’s France’s youngest president ever at just 39 years old. He’s alsonever been elected to any kind of political office before. In fact, he started his own politicalparty, En Marche, about a year ago. He did, however, serve as France’s Economy Minister.

 

E. Researchers in Michigan secretly observed nearly 3,800 people at restrooms to see if people washed their hands properly. The answer was: NO. 10% didn’t even pretend to wash their hands. 23% washed … but didn’t actually use any soap. The rest used soap but most of themnot for long enough. Only 5% washed their hands with soap for 15 seconds or more.

 

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33
Задание 6 № 858

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Weather

2. Sports

3. Health

4. Sightseeing

5. Safety on transport

6. Politics

 

A. The central feature of the Kuskovo estate, the Palace with its splendid forecourt andmagnificent formal garden, is the best preserved part of the estate. The forecourt iscombination of the designing principles of the old boyar estate and the eighteenth-century country residence. The irregular arrangement of the buildings gives the forecourt apicturesque quality.

 

B. Seeing a dog sticking its head out the car window enjoying the sights and smells on a sunnyday is super cute, but is it safe? Increasingly, many are saying it’s not. Experts say that in a car with brakes being applied while driving 35 milesper hour, even a small dog can create a force the equivalent of 2,700 poundbaby elephant! Bad for your dog … and could be badfor you too.

 

C. In an exciting game, Barca was up 5-1 with just moments left — so close, but they’d need one more for the miracle win. Then, in stoppage time (after regulation time is done and where time lost during the game is made up) … with seconds left, Barca passed it to substituteplayer, Sergi Roberto, who placed a perfectly timed foot on the ball … and scored!

 

D. In the presidential elections in Francea win for Marine Le Pen would have resulted in a verydifferent vision. Ms. Le Pen had wanted a Frexit, France’s exit from the European Union (similar to Brexit, Britain’s recent exit from European Union membership). During thecampaign, her views were often compared to President Trump’s.

 

E. The rain overwhelmed rivers and streams causing “flash floods” as the banks couldn’tabsorb or contain the water. The force of the rushing waters uprooted homes and cars as it went by, snapped roads and bridges in half, and breached dams meant to contain the water.Many towns can be reached now only by helicopters.

 

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34
Задание 6 № 878

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Weather

2. People

3. Health

4. Sports

5. Sightseeing

6. Nature

 

A. The Kuskovo Palace was built on the site of an old manor-house under the direction of the Moscow architect Karl Blank (1728–1793). The Palace was built in 1769-1775 inthe style of early classicism. The Palace is built in wood, the traditional building material used by Russian architects. The lower floor is built in brick.

 

B. For many days now, there have been historic and devastating floods in the state of Colorado, in and around the city of Boulder. And it’s all because of a huge amount of rain in a shortperiod of time! One area near Denver received as much rain in one day … as it usually does almost all year. That’s an all-time record for that area, according to NBC News.

 

C. What would you say the top predator in the world is? Lions? Elephants? Whales? People? According to Dr. Martin Nyffeler from the University of Basel in Switzerland, it’s … the spider. If you took every spider in the world and measured howmuch they all ate, it turns out to be an astronomical 400-800 million tons of prey each year.

 

D. First Lady Michelle Obama unveiled a new design today showing us what healthy eatinglooks like. And it’s simple. Half your meal should be fruits and vegetables. Some other important parts of her meal plan: —drink water instead of sugary drinks; —avoid oversized portions; —switch to low-fat milk; —compare salt on food packages and go with the onesthat have less.

 

E. The Chicago Cubs won the World Series for the first time since 1908, ending the longeststretch of time for a team between World Series’ wins — over a century. The Cubs had been down three games to one in this best of seven series, the Cleveland Indians being just onewin away from winning it all … three games in a row.

 

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35
Задание 6 № 898

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Economy

2. Nature

3. Sightseeing

4. Politics

5. Outer space

6. Sports

 

A. The main entrance to the Kuskovo Palace is made in the form of a high six-column portico with the monogram PS incised on the central pediment. Two gently sloping sandstone rampslead from the entrance and end with sphinx figures on their parapets. The Palace wasintended solely for receptions and this accounts for its layout and décor.

 

B. Legendary soccer team, FC Barcelona, pulled off one of the greatest sports comebacks of all-time in a game against rival Paris St. Germain. The problem for Barcelona was that they lost the first game 4-0. That meant that they’d have to win by 5 goals in the next name … against a tough team, in a game where final scores are often more like 1-0.

 

C. You probably haven’t given much thought (or even known) about the garbage in space,floating just above Earth. But it’s there. And there’s a lot more of it than you’d think. Space junk is basically stuff left over from satellites and rocket launches, all man-made things. The problem in addition to there being a lot of it is that each piece travels at about 17,500 milesper hour!

 

D. Spiders eat mostly insects. They’re natural enemies for the most part. Without spiders theinsect population would be out of control. And since insects eat plants and trees we have a lot to thank spiders for. «Spiders thus make an essential contribution to maintaining theecological balance of nature,» said Dr. Nyffeler. He’s been studying spiders for 40 years!

 

E. While many people are focusing on Mr. Macron’s landslide win and characterizing Ms. LePen’s defeat as a big one, others are pointing out that Ms. Le Pen’s party, Front National, did the best it ever has and that there’s growing support for her ideas. Francehas a population of 66 million people and in terms of land is a bit larger than the state of Texas.

 

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36
Задание 6 № 918

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Sports

2. Exhibitions

3. Sightseeing

4. Health

5. War victims

6. Politics

 

A. Kuskovo was built between 1740 and 1780. The bulk of the construction was carriedout in the 1750s. The eighteenth-century engravings and drawings give us an idea of thespecial layout of the estate. The axis more than three kilometers long serves to link upthree component parts — the ground beyond the lake, the formal park, and the landscapepark.

 

B. Last year a staggering 65 million people had to leave their homes. 23 million of them had toleave their country (are refugees). Half of those — over 11 million — are children. It’s the largest amount of people we know of that have had to leave their situation according to the United Nations Refugee Agency. And the children in particular haven’t done anything to bein the situation they are in.

 

C. The Golden State Warriors are headed to the NBA Championships after an epic comeback inthe best of 7 series against the Oklahoma City Thunder. The Warriors were down threegames to one. They had to win three games in a row under tremendous pressure. But theGolden State Warriors are proving to be no ordinary team.

 

D. The cold never bothered Harbin, China… in fact they thrive on it, hosting the world’slargest snow and ice festival every year. It’s under way right now. Around 7,000 sculptorsworked tirelessly to build … basically a city, complete with buildings, sculptures, and slides — all made of ice and snow! There are replicas of the Great Wall of China as well as world-record sized sculptures.

 

E. Today the U.N. has 193 member countries. All are invited to attend the General Assembly. Each Assembly is given a number. This year it was the sixty-seventh session, or the 67th Assembly since the U.N. was founded in 1945. A secretary-general leads the U.N. Its current leader is Ban Ki-moon. He is a former diplomat from South Korea.

 

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37
Задание 6 № 938

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Natural science

2. Environmental protection

3. Risky business

4. Space travel

5. Sightseeing

6. Sports

 

A. The unusual Ostankino Palace was designed by the famous Russian architects F. Camporesi, V. Brenna and I. Starov. The design was implemented by the serf architects A. Mironov and P. Argunov. The construction works lasted from 1792 to 1798. The palace is built completely out of wood; however, its plastered walls seem to be out of stone.

 

B. While reducing plastic waste is something most consumer wish to do, it is not an easy goalto achieve. That’s because the cheap and durable material is found in almost everyhousehold item. Now, an Indonesian-based startup has come up with a delicious and nutritious solution to help reduce our dependence on this environmental danger.

 

C. Houston residents finally have something to cheer about — a World Series victory. The first in many years. Thousands of delighted fans lined up on the city streets on Friday, November 3 for a parade celebrating the Houston Astros who won the baseball championship with a resounding 5-1 score against the Los Angeles Dodgers in the seventh game.

 

D. In 1974, American stuntman Evel Knievel attempted to cross Idaho’s Snake River Canyonaboard a steam-powered rocket. Unfortunately, a parachute deployed prematurely andcaused the rocket and its occupant to drift to the canyon’s bottom. While Knievel emerged relatively unscathed from the incident, he never got a chance to attempt the stunt again.

 

E. Facial recognition is a complex task which requires as many as 200 neurons to fire upsimultaneously within milliseconds. Hence the skill has always been believed to be therealm of “intelligent” animals such as humans, monkeys, apes, dogs, and horses. Now,British scientists have found that the simple cud-chewing sheep also possess this skill.

 

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38
Задание 6 № 958

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Photography

2. Adventures

3. Sightseeing

4. Sports

5. Holidays

6. Children’s activities

 

A. The Ostankino estate, situated in the northern part of Moscow, is a uniquely well-preserved monument of the 18th century Russian architecture. In the past it was a country estate, while currently it is situated at a 20 minute ride away from the Kremlin. The estate attracts beauty lovers by its austere forms of the classical architecture.

 

B. For most Americans, the holiday season begins around Thanksgiving. However, for Kathy Rombeiro and her dad, Edmundo, it starts in September, when they begin the laborious process of converting their Novato, California home into a winter wonderland. By the first Sunday of December, the ordinary suburban home is transformed into a magical «Christmas House».

 

C. Ever since Apple introduced the front-facing camera, or selfie camera in 2010, selfies have become the undisputed king of social media. The never-ending need to share breathtaking self-portraits on popular mobile photo services like Instagram and Snapchat has often proved to be dangerous and, in some cases, even deadly.

 

D. Kids, whose vivid imaginations know few boundaries, frequently come up with invention ideas that range from life-changing to downright wacky. However, few see them come to life mainly because adults are not convinced of their practicality. That is about to change thanks to Little Inventors, an innovative project that connects aspiring inventors tomanufacturers.

 

E. When former world number one Andy Murray withdrew from the Australian Open in Melbourne last week, it was not exactly news. A few days earlier he had with drawn from the Brisbane International, having not competed in any tennis tournament since Wimbledon last year. The big news would have been if he had finally pronounced himself fit.

 

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39
Задание 6 № 978

Установите соответствие между текстами A—E и рубриками 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна рубрика лишняя.

 

1. Food

2. Helping the poor

3. Politics

4. Sports

5. Shopping

6. Sightseeing

 

A. In 1749 the Dutch House in Kuskovo was erected in memory of Peter the Great, whom Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev served as companion-in-arms. This house is modeled on typical late seventeenth-century Dutch town house. It is a two-storey brick building. The house was plastered and painted in imitation of brickwork.

 

B. The U.N. was formally set up, or founded, just after the end of the Second World War in 1945. It replaced the League of Nations. This organization was formed after the end of the First World War (1914–1918). Its main purpose was to stop any future wars from happening. Yet the League was not successful and it failed to prevent the start of the Second World War in 1939.

 

C. At a restaurant in Madrid, Spain, regular paying customers come for breakfast and lunch. In the evening, the restaurant is reserved exclusively for the homeless. The money that’s made from the meals paid for earlier in the day is used to provide free dinners for homeless people later that night. The restaurant seats 50 people and each night the restaurant feeds 100 homeless people.

 

D. What an incredible end to the men’s NCAA basketball national championship game last night! It was the Villanova Wildcats (a Philadelphia team) versus the University of North Carolina Tar Heels. Both teams took the lead throughout the game. And the score was 74-71 for Villanova with just a few seconds left. Then it got really interesting.

 

E. Imagine walking into a grocery store, putting the food items you want into your bag and then just walking out. Done. No checkout lines. No looking for your wallet. Amazon (the online store that started out by selling books) is opening a grocery store just like that in a few months. They made the announcement yesterday. There will only be one store at first — in Seattle, Washington.

 

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